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Chapter 6. Part II. Godlike Heroes. Children of the gods Heracles Son of Zeus and a mortal Very strong, courageous Became a god upon his death Performed ten great labors Killed the Nemean lion Captured the Minoan bull Battled the Cerberus. Godlike heroes, continued. Theseus

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Chapter 6
Chapter 6

Part II


Godlike heroes
Godlike Heroes

  • Children of the gods

    • Heracles

      • Son of Zeus and a mortal

      • Very strong, courageous

      • Became a god upon his death

      • Performed ten great labors

        • Killed the Nemean lion

        • Captured the Minoan bull

        • Battled the Cerberus


Godlike heroes continued
Godlike heroes, continued

  • Theseus

    • Killed the Minotaur

  • Jason

    • Led the Argonauts on a quest for the Golden Fleece

  • Cadmus

    • Killed a dragon

  • Bellerophon and Pegasus

    • Killed the Chimera monster

  • Atlanta

    • Part of the Argonauts, a runner


Prayers and sacrifices
Prayers and Sacrifices

  • Greeks worshipped the Olympians

    • If things did not go well for them, they assumed that they had angered the gods

  • Sacrificed animals

    • Very superstitious about what the entrails showed


Prayers and sacrifice continued
Prayers and sacrifice, continued

  • Each city had its own patron deity and local gods (in addition to the Olympians)

  • Altars in homes and the city

  • Festivals

    • Beginnings of Greek theater and the Olympic Games

  • All towns had a hearth (Hestia)


Prayers and sacrifice continued1
Prayers and sacrifice, continued

  • What was missing from Greek society?

    • Moral code

    • Hubris – excessive pride or arrogance

  • What was the job of the priest?

  • What was the purpose of a temple?


The greek concept of death
The Greek Concept of death

  • Woman of the household washed the body with olive oil, dressed it in white, placed a wreath on the head

  • Funeral procession

  • Both men and women buried with special possessions


The greek concept of death continued
The greek concept of death, continued

  • Life after death

    • Soul went to the Underworld

      • Guided by Hermes to the River Styx

    • Coin given to Charon to cross

    • Cerberus on other side

    • Drank from the Lethe River

      • So you forget about life on earth


Judgment
Judgment

  • Souls were judged on the person’s former life

  • Tartarus

    • For the wicked

  • Asphodel Fields

    • Where most ended up; a boring, aimless afterlife

  • Elysian Fields

    • For those who had led a virtuous life

  • Isles of the Blessed

    • Nearly impossible to achieve


The oracles
The Oracles

  • Oracles – religious shrines

    • Special priests relayed messages and interpreted the answer

    • Over 250 oracles in Greece

  • Delphi

    • Most famous oracle at Apollo’s temple

    • On Mt. Parnassus

    • Greeks considered this the center of the world

    • Priestess was called Pythia


The oracles1
The oracles

  • How did Pythia communicate with Apollo?

  • What was the process to have your question answered?

  • What happened to Pythia?

  • Who was the oldest oracle?

    • Dodona


Religion and science
Religion and Science

  • Greeks questioned the world around them, despite their belief in supernatural deities

  • Saw no contradiction between religion and science


Questions on page 63
Questions on page 63

  • #7 – Who was Cerberus?

  • #8 – What were the Elysian Fields?

  • #9 – How did the priests at the oracles solve the problems of finding acceptable answers to difficult questions?

  • #10 – How did the Greeks reconcile their religious beliefs with their respect for human reasoning?


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