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Iodine Deficiency Goiter. Dr Sajida Naseem Assistant Professor Section of Community & Family Medicine. Affects all the basic body functions, including physical and mental growth, metabolism, reproduction and digestion. Session Objectives.

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iodine deficiency goiter

Iodine Deficiency Goiter

Dr SajidaNaseem

Assistant Professor

Section of

Community & Family Medicine

slide2
Affects all the basic body functions, including physical and mental growth, metabolism, reproduction and digestion.
session objectives
Session Objectives
  • At the end of the session , students should be able to understand the:
  • Epidemiology of Iodine Deficiency disorders
  • Pakistan statistics on IDD
  • Importance of Iodine in life.
  • Ref: WHO Guidelines, NNS 2011.
world thyroid day
World Thyroid Day
  • 25th May
  • To promote awareness and understanding of thyroid health and the advances made in treating thyroid diseases. 
goiter
GOITER
  • Is an enlarged thyroid gland
  • It may be diffuse or nodular
  • May cause a variety of compressive syndromes.
  • Thyroid function may be normal (nontoxic goiter), overactive (toxic goiter), or underactive (hypothyroid goiter).
iodine
Iodine
  • Iodine is important in promoting the development and release of thyroid hormones, which are essential in driving many mental and bodily processes.
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Deficiencies are common in areas where iodine is not abundant in soil and food.

  • Seafood and crops grown in nutrient-rich soil are typically the best sources for iodine, and people who live far from coastal regions and at high altitudes may not have access to such foods.
on an international perspective
On an International perspective
  • Most common cause of goiter is iodine deficiency.
  • Affect as many as 200 million of the 800 million people who have a diet deficient in iodine.
  • Affects 2% of world population
  • 100% treatable.
benign or malignant
Benign or Malignant?
  • Most are benign, causing only cosmetic disfigurement.
  • Morbidity or mortality may result from: compression of surrounding structures, thyroid cancer,

hyperthyroidism, or hypothyroidism.

age sex distribution
Age & Sex Distribution

Sex

  • The female-to-male ratio is 4:1.
  • Thyroid nodules are less frequent in men than in women, but when found, they are more likely to be malignant.

Age

  • Decreases with advancing age. The decrease in frequency differs from the incidence of thyroid nodules, which increases with advancing age.
presentation of the case history
Presentation of the case - History

Various ways, including:

  • Incidentally, as a swelling in the neck discovered by the patient or on routine physical examination
  • Local compression causing dysphagia, dyspnea, stridor, plethora or hoarseness
  • Pain due to hemorrhage, inflammation, necrosis, or malignant transformation
  • Signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism
  • Thyroid cancer with or without metastases
  • A finding on imaging studies performed for a related or unrelated medical evaluation
etiology
Etiology
  • Iodine deficiency
  • Autoimmune thyroiditis - Hashimoto or postpartum thyroiditis
  • Excess iodine (Wolff-Chaikoff effect)[5] or lithium ingestion, which decrease release of thyroid hormone
  • Goitrogens
  • Stimulation of TSH receptors by TSH from pituitary tumors, pituitary thyroid hormone resistance, gonadotropins, and/or thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulins
  • Inborn errors of metabolism causing defects in biosynthesis of thyroid hormones
  • Exposure to radiation
  • Deposition diseases
  • Thyroid hormone resistance
  • Subacutethyroiditis (de Quervainthyroiditis)
  • Silent thyroiditis
  • Riedel thyroiditis
  • Infectious agentsAcutesuppurative - Bacterial
  • Chronic - Mycobacteria, fungal, and parasitic
  • Granulomatous disease
  • Thyroid malignancy
  • Low selenium levels: This may be associated with goiter prevalence.
screening
Screening
  • TSH.
  • Urinary Iodine Excretion.
  • An assessment of free thyroxine would be the next step in the evaluation.
once diagnosed
Once diagnosed……
  • Eat more seafood, dairy products, vegetables, and iodized salt.
  • With treatment and a healthy diet, most people are able to overcome iodine deficiency symptoms in less than one month
medical care
Medical Care
  • Small benign euthyroidgoiters do not require treatment.
  • Large and complicated goiters may require medical and surgical treatment.
  • Malignant goiters require medical and surgical treatment.
  • The size of a benign euthyroidgoiter may be reduced with levothyroxine suppressive therapy.
goals of treatment
Goals of Treatment
  • To reduce morbidity and to prevent complications.
in pakistan
In Pakistan

NNS -2011

thyroid pregnancy
Thyroid & Pregnancy
  • Infant may be born with mental retardation and lifelong hearing problems.
  • Baby may not grow as quickly or fully as healthy infants.
  • Increases chances of stillbirth.
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