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Latvia (January 8, 1998): 2,434,469. Ethnic composition (1998): 57.1% Latvian, 29.5% Russian, 4.1% Belarusian, 2.7% Ukrainian, 2.5% Polish, 2.3 ...

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ELIMINATION OF IODINE DEFICIENCY IN LATVIA

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Elimination of iodine deficiency in latvia l.jpg

ELIMINATION OF IODINE DEFICIENCY IN LATVIA

Dr.Med. Guntars Selga,

Latvian Food Center


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Historical divisions of Latvia

ESTONIA

Vidzeme

Kurzeme

Latgale

Zemgale

LITHUANIA

BELORUSIA


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Population

  • Latvia (January 8, 1998): 2,434,469.Ethnic composition (1998): 57.1% Latvian, 29.5% Russian, 4.1% Belarusian, 2.7% Ukrainian, 2.5% Polish, 2.3% Lithuanian, 1.8% others.Riga (January 1998): 790,608.

    • Citizens: 1,770,355 (72.72% of total population)

    • Non-Citizens: 646,723 (26.56% of total population)

    • Foreigners: 17,391 (0.72% of total population)


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The definition of the degrees of severity of iodine deficiency (WHO)

  • Severe< 2,0 g/dl

  • Moderate2,0-4,9 g/dl

  • Mild 5,0-9,9 g/dl

  • Normal> 10,0 g/dl


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FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION OF IODINE EXCRETION in Baltic States (1995)

n=5762; 86 Schools; Mean=9,6

Urinary iodine in Latvia - 98 g/l

50%

LATVIA n= 30 schools, 1500 children age 8-12 years


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23-80 g/l

65 g/l

98g/l

60 g/l

70-90 g/l

30-90 g/l

60-70 g/l


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PATIENTS WITH GOITRE IN CHILDREN’S CLINICAL HOSPITAL


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CHRONICAL THYREOIDITIS IN CHILDREN’S CLINICAL HOSPITAL


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PATIENTS WITH THYROTOXICOSIS IN CHILDREN’S CLINICAL HOSP.


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20 SCHOLS INCLUDED IN THE IODINE SURVAY 2000 (n - 600) age 8-12 years

Svētciema vsk.

Ventspils Tārāles pamatsk.

Valmieras Kauguru 9 g. sk.

- K.Videnieka Rīgas 77.vidusskola - Rīgas 1.bāreņu internātskola -Rīgas 33.vidusskola -Berģu pamatskola

Talsu 2.vsk.

Tukuma 2. vsk

Varaklānu vsk.

Kandavas vsk.

Vaiņodes 1.vsk.

Matkules vsk.

Ļaudonas vsk.

Jēkabpils 4.vsk.

Liepājas 15.vsk

Viļānu vsk.

Annenieku vsk.

Viesītes p.sk

Līvānu 1.vsk


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Median Urinary Iodine Excretion Among Latvian Schoolchildren in 2000 (n-600).

23%


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20 SCHOLS INCLUDED IN THE IODINE SURVAY 2000 (n - 600) age 8-12 years

5.44

7.09

7.26

5.77-

7.26

6.7

5.51

3.63

5.82

5.09

6.07

5.14

3.68

8.65

4.9

8.65

5.76

3.96


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Source Iodine g/100g

Cod 135

Salmon62

Sea perch57

Mackerel45

Goose meet42

Herring41

Chockbery40

Egg20

Shampinion18

Milk16

Source Iodine g/100g

Kefir 14

Yoghurt 14

Set milk 13

Beans 12

Swine liver 12

Wheat (summer)11

Lard 10

Rue 9

Cream 9

Garlic 9

Barlay 9

Iodine In The Food(J – 200 gRDA draft in Latvia)


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Mineral or vitamin deficiency

Iodine

Ca

P

Zn

Vit. B6

For assimilation necessary

Iron, manganese, phosphorum

Boron, PUFA, lisin, Mg

Ca, Fe, Vit. B (comlex), Vit. E

Ca, Cu, P, Vit. B6

K, Vit. B (comlex), Vit.C, Vit. E

Synergistic assimilation


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Intake Of Kcalories From Food Group By Sex In Latvia

Nutrition and lifestyle in the Baltic Republics. 1999


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Estimated requirement for edible salt in Latvia

 8750 tonnes of salt/year

(3,5 kg/person year x 2,5 million populatio of Latvia)

Salt situation Analysis in Latvia (1999)

(during 10 months)

- 7000 tonnes of edible salt

- 60 tonnes iodized salt

Less than 0,9%


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Nutrition and lifestyle in the Baltic Republics. 1999

During summer 1997, cross sectional survays were conducted among representative national samples of adults in each country (Estonia: n=2108; Latvia: n=2308; Lithuania: n=2153).

  • salt consumption


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Proportion of Respondents Adding Salt at the Table(males in all age groups)

Nutrition and lifestyle in the Baltic Republics. 1999


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PROPORTION OF RESPONDENTS (womens) ADDING SALT AT THE TABLE(all age groups)

Nutrition and lifestyle in the Baltic Republics. 1999


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Proportion Of Respondents Never Adding Salt At The Table(males in all age groups)

Nutrition and lifestyle in the Baltic Republics. 1999


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PROPORTION OF RESPONDENTS (womens) NEVER ADDING SALT AT THE TABLE

Nutrition and lifestyle in the Baltic Republics. 1999


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Proportion Of Respondents Almost Always Adding Salt Before Tasting(males in all age groups)

Nutrition and lifestyle in the Baltic Republics. 1999


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PROPORTION OF RESPONDENTS (womens) ALMOST ALWAYS ADDING SALT BEFORE TASTING

Nutrition and lifestyle in the Baltic Republics. 1999


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USE OF SALT WITH ADDITIVES(mens all age groups)

Nutrition and lifestyle in the Baltic Republics. 1999


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USE OF SALT WITH ADDITIVES(womens all age groups)

Nutrition and lifestyle in the Baltic Republics. 1999


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TYPE OF SALT WITH ADDITIVES USED BY COUNTRY (mens all age groups)

Nutrition and lifestyle in the Baltic Republics. 1999


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TYPE OF SALT WITH ADDITIVES USED BY COUNTRY (womens all age groups)

Nutrition and lifestyle in the Baltic Republics. 1999


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Dietary belief by country: “More dietary salt in the diet is of no consequence for your health(mens all age groups)

Nutrition and lifestyle in the Baltic Republics. 1999


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Dietary belief by country: “More dietary salt in the diet is of no consequence for your health(womens all age groups)

Nutrition and lifestyle in the Baltic Republics. 1999


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ELIMINATION OF IODINE DEFFICIENCY IN LATVIA

  • To meet iodine requirements, the current recommmended daily iodine intakes necessary:

    • 50 g for infants (first 12 months of age)

    • 90 g for children (2-6 years of age)

    • 120 g for school children (7-12 years age)

    • 150 g for adults (beyond 12 years of age)

    • 200 g for pregnant and lacting women

      Recommended iodine levels in salt and guidelines for monitoring their adequacy and effectiveness, WHO, 1996


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Required iodine levels in salt

  • In order to provide 150 g/day of iodine via iodized salt, iodine concentration in salt at the point of production should be in the range 20-40 mg of iodine per kg of salt.

  • When all salt used in processed food is iodized, the lower limit (20 mg) is recommended.

  • Under these circumstances median urinary iodine levels will vary from 100-200 g/l. “Recommended iodine levels in salt and guidelines for monitoring their adequacy and effectiveness”, WHO, 1996


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Process Model for IDD Elimination Program in Latvia


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