The development of communication without spatial boundaries
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The development of communication without spatial boundaries. Carsten Griwodz [email protected] In use Broadcast television Distributed games SMS PayTV Web P2P file sharing Video-on-demand MMS Audio and video conferencing …. In labs 3D worlds Virtual reality Distributed classrooms

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The developmentofcommunication without spatial boundaries

Carsten Griwodz

[email protected]


In use

Broadcast television

Distributed games

SMS

PayTV

Web

P2P file sharing

Video-on-demand

MMS

Audio and video conferencing

In labs

3D worlds

Virtual reality

Distributed classrooms

Shopping malls

3D cameras

Augmented reality

P2P name resolution

Distributed interactive applications: 10 years ago


Prevalence of interactive applications in entertainment

  • Market shift in entertainment

    • 10 years ago

      • Broadcast media with roughly 50% of all content live

        • Sport shows

        • News shows

        • Reality shows

        • Game shows

      • Stand-alone gaming

      • Bought and rented videos

    • Today

      • Broadcast media with nearly 99% of all content live

        • Game shows

        • Reality shows

        • Game and sport reports

        • Live reports

      • Interactive shows

      • Interaction fiction (personalized, live generation of 3D worlds)

      • Interaction games


Prevalence of interactive applications in entertainment

Interactive games

Mrd Euro

Broadcast

media

Interactive

entertainment


Prevalence of interactive applications in entertainment

  • Reasons

    • Content theft in passive on-demand applications requires protection measures

    • Adequate protection technology

      • Required for all digital recording devices to be always connected

      • Interfered with device usage

      • Was not accepted by users

  • Solutions

    • Lease content and make it available only when connections are available

    • Provide distributed interactive applications such as games

      • Provide unstructured, mostly meaningless content

      • Artistic part added through interaction with content providers


Resource issues in home entertainment

  • Home entertainment systems

  • Integration of many independent devices into a single experience

    • TV screen (non-interactive)

    • Projectors and HDTV widescreen (non-interactive)

    • Video walls (interactive)

    • Distributed devices with session migration (interactive)

  • Input devices for interactivity

    • Low end single base devices

      • Remote control, keyboard, mouse, joystick, gamepad, ..

    • High end multiple base devices

      • PDA, mobile phone, …

      • gesture trackers, voice control, …

    • Input to one application shared among several consumers

    • From multiple independent end systems

    • Personal distributed computing

  • High synchronization requirements

    • Synchronize audio streams from several devices

2006

2012

2006

2016


Distributed devices and computing

Number of cores in a single processor

Azul

Cell

ia32, ia64

T1


Distributed devices and computing

  • Session migration

    • Move running applications between end systems

    • E.g. from a mobile phone to a home entertainment system

  • Distribution of computation and view

    • High level description for audiovisual objects

    • Enables distributed rendering on several output devices

    • E.g. picture-in-picture of summarized news and measurements

  • Personal grid

    • Development environments create distributable applications transparently

    • Jobs migrate automatically to machines with appropriate services


Resource issues in home entertainment

  • Most applications are interactive today

  • Interactive fiction requires very high bandwidth and very low latencies at the same time

  • Development steps

    • Latency requirements are addressed by program design

    • Latency requirements are addressed by architecture support

      • Bandwidth increase becomes possible

    • Mobility of devices improves

    • Team play within massive multiplayer games becomes popular

    • Mesh networks are used to increase scale

      • Required multi-homing, load balancing, multipath support

    • Mesh networks require charging and billing among end-users

    • QOS support

2006

2016


Latency issues

  • You can’t hide latency in some applications

    • Applications where prediction of the remote state will inevitably lead to wrong decisions

      • Remote operations

      • Mobile exploration, construction and rescue robots

      • Multiplayer games without physical models

      • Military command and control

      • Distributed production streets

    • Applications where the latency is so high that prediction can not be applied any more

      • Space exploration, construction and rescue

  • Result

    • New comeback of AI technology

      • Achieve independent decisions in many more cases

      • Based on general directions instead of direct control

    • New kind of critical operator jobs

      • Requires a high level of education: knowledge of processes and there interaction

      • Possibly working under high risk or in adverse conditions

    • QoS to push the limits


Mesh networks

  • Make it affordable to use higher bandwidth

    • Enable resource sharing

    • Required to achieve data rates required for interactive fiction

    • Higher aggregate bandwidth

  • Remain always on

    • Resilient against failures of individual connections

  • Incentive to share resources is required

    • Billing developed

  • Limited sharing is necessary

    • Wireless multihop routing extended with QoS mechanisms

    • QoS mechanisms for uplink resource sharing introduced

    • QoS for downlink resource sharing introduced


Mesh networks

  • Mesh networking implies multiplexed connections through several Internet service providers at the same time

    • Multi-homing and multi-path support

  • Local network

    • Market of local resources

    • Share other local resources as well

  • Mesh networks are implemented on top of wired and wireless devices

    • Operated under private ownership, as public service or commercial service, or any mix of this

    • One mesh is an administrative domain

      • Defined by a contract for resource sharing and the tools required to implement the contract

    • Nodes can participate in several meshes

    • Nodes do not have to route traffic


Two requirements for scalability in mesh networks

Multi-homing

Addressable presence of the same transport connection of an application in several networks at the same time

Multi-path

Transmission of a single data stream to a single application using several networks concurrently

Required a new addressing abstraction

Alternative supported approaches

Anycast to multi-homed interfaces, and path choice at individual routers

Transport address layer translation to several network layer addresses to perform congestion control for the separate homes and paths

Connection-oriented network layer with end-to-end negotiation of several paths

Transparent multi-homing and multi-path


Commercial content hosting development

  • Centralized web hosting

    • Ease of use, load leveling

  • Content distribution in static overlay networks

    • Scalability

  • Hosting of applications

    • Applications become more interactive

    • Offload central servers, keep traffic local, aggregate and filter at the application level

    • Not quite active networks


Commercial content hosting development

  • Proxies as a dynamic software solutions

    • Success of P2P generalized, exploit available end user resources, but need incentive model, which is here financial

    • Traffic can be kept local

      • Reduce load

      • Reduce latencies

    • Co-development with mesh network availability

  • Private business from private proxies

    • Small-scale revenue model that can grow and shrink dynamically

    • Resources can be traded among consumers

      • Power-nodes liker eBay power sellers

    • Goes hand-in-hand with QoS support in mesh networks


PGFS: Personal global file system

  • Data appear to be stored in a single global file system

  • Accessible from all connected end devices

  • Independent of

    • Current location

    • Current end system

    • Administrative domain (home or business)

  • Fully transparent access to data

    • Personal data

    • Publicly available content (e.g. web pages, incl. dynamically created web page)

    • Content shared with other users


PGFS: Personal global file system

  • The personal global file system

    • Is virtual

    • Every user has one personal global namespace

    • Can span several actual local namespaces

    • Lookup service

      • Subscription to one of several global namespace management services

      • P2P systems using aggressive caching and replication

  • Dynamic growth through hosting

    • Locking to a physical location is possible

    • Contribution to the storage pool is possible

    • Reserved storage space is traded on-line

  • Very secure


Importance of conferencing

  • 10 years ago

    • Hardly in use aside from two-party AV communication

    • Problems

      • Low video quality

      • High latency and jitter

      • No immersion

      • Cooperation mostly in a shared computer use paradigm

  • Now

    • Important because of high fuel prices

    • Available in public transport systems (including road trains, railcabs)

    • Features

      • 3D conferencing

      • Augmented reality conference settings

      • Gesture and voice recognition

      • Quality guarantees


Interactive distributed 3D design

  • 10 years ago

    • Go to IKEA with the measurements from your house

  • Now

    • Loan an ultrasound meter from IKEA

    • Set up it in your room

    • Design interactively with an online salesperson in a 3D presentation

    • Use gesture tracking to manipulate the room

  • Other applications

    • Distributed construction of houses, bridges, etc.

    • Design session is integrated with the architects' home system

      • E.g. perform stability automatically like spell-checking in a word processor 10 years ago

    • Owner can be included in the process

    • In general more interaction in production


Medical services

  • Hierarchically organized

    • From local first aid station to rare specialized clinics

    • Reason is the cost of specialization

    • Local health station need support to handle difficult cases

  • Approach

    • Central remote treatment centers

    • Mobile operation theaters

  • Requirement

    • Top quality data network to every local health station

    • Extremely resilient networks

    • QoS support in networks

    • Availability of dynamic short-term QoS contracts

    • Simple reconfiguration


QoS

  • 10 years ago

    • Service planning

    • Bandwidth-oriented

    • Generic SLAs among ISPs

  • Now

    • Latency-oriented

    • Local area QoS

      • Static distribution defined by mesh contracts

      • Policy-conforming distribution of resources

      • Resource brokerage

      • … all of the above

    • Long-distance QoS

      • Unified labeling and switching for low-latency connections

      • On-demand QoS offered by independent traffic aggregators (brokers)


Supervision cameras

  • Until 5 years ago

    • Massive growth in number of CCTV cameras

    • Decrease in police in the street

    • Increase in petty crime

    • Increase in private security service business

  • 4 years ago

    • Improvement in image detection and tracking improves solution rate for petty crime to nearly 100%

    • Increasing frequency of misuses makes people suspicious

  • 3 years ago

    • All CCTV cameras are made publicly accessible

    • Development of 3D scene creation from multiple camera angles

    • Object recognition allows automatic tracking of people

    • Coordinated actions through cities by private security companies based on Jedermannsrecht

    • Decrease in petty crime


Supervision cameras

  • Leads to business

    • Object tracking across several cameras

      • Suffers from inaccurate timing and different latencies and picture quality

      • Can be overcome by exact timecodes

      • Offered as commercial add-on service

    • Commercial redistributors negotiate for additional services

      • Exact timecodes (using Galileo), object recognition, and 3D reconstruction make it possible to create 3D scenes from several cameras, thereby following everybody around

    • Allows people to track others

  • One service: Nanny-TV

    • People track their children around

    • Leads to persecution complex amongchildren

    • School uniforms become fashionable


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