Some basic tools for using population ecology as a management tool a primer
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Some basic tools for using population ecology as a management tool – A Primer. GROWTH RECRUITMENT MORTALITY COMPENSATION. Lake Pend Oreille. An On-the-Ground Application of Population Ecology. LPO Fishery - Desired Outcomes. Ross Hall photos.

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Some basic tools for using population ecology as a management tool a primer
Some basic tools for using population ecology as a management tool – A Primer





Lake pend oreille

Lake Pend Oreille management tool –

An On-the-Ground Application of Population Ecology

Lpo fishery desired outcomes
LPO Fishery - Desired Outcomes management tool –

  • Ross Hall photos

Drawdowns to 2051 ft became routine beginning in 1966 management tool –

Shrimp established in 1975

Albeni Falls Dam Built

Adult Kokanee Abundance in Lake Pend Oreille

Kokanee survival
KOKANEE SURVIVAL management tool –

  • Declined in 2007; low for all ages

  • Survival less than 50% is a concern

  • Predation limiting survival to spawning

Lpo kokanee
LPO Kokanee management tool –

  • Primarily lake spawners, some tributary spawners, hatchery supplementation

  • Longevity – 4 to 5 years (die after spawning)

  • Relatively low fecundity, but high plasticity (compensatory ability)

  • Planktivores

  • Key prey item for BLT, RBT, LT as well as avian and terrestrial predators

  • Principle threats:

    • Predation

    • Habitat impacts

Lpo lake trout
LPO Lake trout management tool –

  • Lake spawners (fall)

  • Longevity – 30+ years, mature at 7 years

  • Highly piscivorous, but can survive on Mysis

  • Slow growth

  • Relatively low fecundity

  • Principle threat:

    • Directed harvest

Lake trout fishery management
Lake Trout management tool – Fishery Management

  • Lake trout are late maturing and long lived, so are vulnerable to over-fishing.

  • The largest lake trout populations were over-fished in the Great Lakes before sea lamprey became a problem.

  • Most lake trout populations in Ontario inland lakes are considered over-fished.

  • Lake Pend Oreille is a field test of over-fishing of lake trout!

Lake trout size structure
Lake Trout management tool – Size Structure

IDFG 2007

Lake trout growth
Lake Trout management tool – Growth

McKee et al. 2004

Burnham-Curtis and Bronte 1996

Lake trout maturity
Lake Trout management tool – Maturity

IDFG 2007

Lake trout future prognosis
Lake Trout management tool – Future Prognosis?


Which is better for

Lake Pend Oreille?



IDFG 2007

Kokanee biomass production and yield this

Or This management tool – 

Kokanee Biomass,Production and Yield This

Lake trout fishery management1
Lake Trout management tool – Fishery Management

IDFG 2007

Lake trout mortality
Lake Trout management tool – Mortality

  • Natural (LPO2006 = 15.1% estimate):

    • Average = 18% (much higher if lampreys).

    • Range = 10–36% (much higher if lampreys).

  • Fishing (LPO2006 > 44.5%; 0.58kg/ha):

    • Highest = 45% (Superior prior to lamprey).

    • Populations decline if harvest > 0.50 kg/ha.

  • Total (LPO2006 > 59.6%):

    • Populations are sustainable if A < 50%.

    • Most populations decline if A > 50%!

Healey 1978

Can it work
Can it work? management tool –

  • Lake trout exploitation (angling & commercial nets) ~50%

    • Exploitation rates of ~ 40% collapsed Great Lakes fisheries

  • Rainbow trout

    exploitation still


  • Predation still

    too high

Lake Michigan lake trout

Lake Trout management tool – Distribution

Great Bear Lake

(31,153 km2)

(452 m)

Great Slave Lake

(27,195 km2)

(625 m)

Lake Huron

(59,596 km2)

(220 m)

Lake Pend Oreille

(383 km2)

(351 m)

Lake Superior

(82,414 km2)

(405 m)

Lake Ontario

(19,529 km2)

(237 m)

Lake Michigan

(58,016 km2)

(285 m)

Lake Erie

(25,745 km2)

(64 m)

Probability of kokanee collapse with different mortality rates for rbt and lt
Probability of Kokanee Collapse management tool – With Different Mortality Rates for RBT and LT

Bottom line for success on lpo
Bottom Line for Success on LPO: management tool –

  • We need to reduce predation on kokanee by 50 tons annually to begin kokanee recovery

  • RBT and LT are the two primary predators

  • Current needs – harvest LT and RBT to reduce predation and slow growth of LT population

  • LT will need to be managed at a suppressed level for the long term

  • The public will need to support programs

Some take away points for f w population management
Some Take-Away Points For F&W Population Management: management tool –

  • If R>M populations grow, and vice versa

  • More fecund animal populations apt to grow more rapidly in good, unoccupied habitat

  • Many species “compensate” at low densities by increasing growth rates, lowering age of reproduction & increasing fecundity

  • Late maturing, lower fecundity populations more susceptible to mortality agents

  • “Predator pits” more likely to occur when predator species has abundant supply of alternative prey

  • Habitat conditions affect R & M, but so also can external forces (Exploitation, Predation, Competition, Disease, etc)

Information and slides for this presentation were contributed by Melo Maiolie, Mike Hansen and Ned Horner.