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Osmoregulation and Excretion. Ainsley Lockhart and Emily Allyn. Osmoregulation: The Basics. Osmoconformers – Isoosmotic with surroundings Osmoregulators- Control internal environment independently from environment

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Osmoregulation and Excretion

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Osmoregulation and excretion

Osmoregulation and Excretion

Ainsley Lockhart and Emily Allyn

Osmoregulation the basics

Osmoregulation: The Basics

  • Osmoconformers –Isoosmotic with surroundings

  • Osmoregulators- Control internal environment independently from environment

  • Stenohaline –Animals that cannot tolerate large changes in external osmolarity

  • Euryhaline –Animals that can survive large fluctuation in external osmolarity.

Osmotic challenges a survey

Osmotic Challenges: A Survey

Osmoregulation energy cost and other mechanisms

Osmoregulation: Energy Cost and Other Mechanisms

  • Energy is required for active transport and diffusion of solutes and water

  • Transport epithelia is responsible for filtration and reabsorption

Nitrogenous waste

Nitrogenous Waste

  • Ammonia

  • Urea

  • Uric acid

  • Evolution of each mode

Excretion the basics

Excretion: The Basics

  • How excretory systems maintain homeostasis.

  • Bodily Fluids -> Filtrate -> Urine

Evolution of excretory systems protonephridia

Evolution of Excretory Systems: Protonephridia

  • Organisms

    • Flatworms(acoelomates)

    • Rotifers

    • Some annelids

    • Mollusc larvae

    • Lancelets

  • Functions

    • Metabolic waste excretion

    • Osmoregulation

    • Disposal of nitrogenous waste

  • Mechanisms

    • Tubule network

    • Flame bulbs

Evolution of excretory systems metanephridia

Evolution of Excretory Systems: Metanephridia

  • Organisms

    • Most annelids

  • Functions

    • Metabolic waste excretion

    • Osmoregulation

  • Mechanisms

    • Ciliated funnel

    • Collecting tubule

    • Transport epithelium

Evolution of excretory systems malpighian tubules

Evolution of Excretory Systems: Malpighian Tubules

  • Organisms

    • Insects and other terrestrial arthropods

  • Functions

    • Nitrogenous waste disposal

    • Osmoregulation

  • Mechanism

    • transport epithelium

Evolution of excrtory systems kidneys

Evolution of Excrtory Systems: Kidneys

  • Organisms

    • Vertebrates and some other chordates

  • Functions

    • Osmoregulation

    • Metabolic waste excretion

  • Mechanism:

    • Highly organized tubules

    • Ducts

Structure of the mammalian excretory system

Structure Of The Mammalian Excretory System

  • Kidneys: renal cortex, renal medulla, nephron

  • Renal veins and arteries supply blood

  • Urine: Kidneys -> Ureter -> Bladder -> Urethra

Adaptations and evolution of the mammalian kidney

Adaptations and Evolution of the Mammalian Kidney

  • Gram-negative bacteria

  • Hagfish and segmented kidneys

Pathway of filtrate

Pathway of Filtrate

From blood filtrate to urine

From Blood Filtrate to Urine

  • proximal tubule        

  • descending and ascending limb of loop of Henle        

  • distal tube        

  • collecting duct

Solute gradients

Solute Gradients

Kidney adaptations mammals

Kidney Adaptations: Mammals

  • The juxtamedullary nephronfunctions for water conservation

  • Long loops of Henle

Kidney adaptations birds and other reptiles

Kidney Adaptations: Birds and other Reptiles

  • Birds

    • Juxtamedullary nephrons

    • Shorter loops of Henle

    • Uric acid

  • Reptiles

    • Cortical nephrons

    • Transport epithelium in cloacas

    • Uric acid.

Kidney adaptations freshwater fish and amphibians

Kidney Adaptations: Freshwater Fish and Amphibians

  • Freshwater Fish

    • Many nephrons

    • Transport epithelium for salt retention

  • Amphibians

    • Water vs. land adaptations

Kidney adapations marine bony fish

Kidney Adapations: Marine Bony Fish

  • Small nephrons with no distal tube

  • Small or no glomeruli

  • Divalent ions flushed out with kidneys, proximal tubules of nephrons

  • Monovalent ions flushed out with gills

Contribution of hormones to the mammalian excretory system

Contribution of Hormones to the Mammalian Excretory System

  • antidiuretic hormones (ADH)

  • hypothalamus and pituitary( osmoregulator cells in hypothalamus detects rising osmolarity of blood and produces the hormone. Hormone is stored in the pituitary gland)

  • distal tubes and collection ducts (aquaphorons) (the ADH binds to aquaphorons in kidney to change the water pemeability of transport epithelial)

Renin angiotensin aldosterone system raas

Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS)

  • juxtaglomerular apparatus (JGA), afferent arteriol ( the afferent arteriol moitors blood volume/ artetiol tension and instructs the JGA which is close by to make angiotensin II)

  • adrenal gland (makes aldosterone)

  • aldosterone, angiotensin II

Homeostatic regulation of the kidney

Homeostatic Regulation of the Kidney

  • The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS)

  • Antidiuretic hormones (ADH)

  • Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)

Disorders of the kidney

Disorders of the Kidney

  • Diabetes insipidus

  • Affects of alcohol

  • Gout



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  • Campbell, Neil A. “Biology.” Pearson, San Francisco. 2008.


Borrowed photo credits

“Borrowed Photo” Credits

  • http://www.faqs.org/health/Body-by-Design-V2/The-Urinary-System.html

  • http://bio1152.nicerweb.com/Locked/media/ch44/

  • http://www.agen.ufl.edu/%7Echyn/age2062/OnLineBiology/OLBB/www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBookglossM.html

  • http://health.allrefer.com/pictures-images/kidney-anatomy.html

  • http://www.nature.com/ki/journal/v63/n4/images/4493564f4.gif

  • http://home.bway.net/rjnoonan/humans_in_space/nephron.gif

  • Campbell, Neil A. “Biology.” Pearson, San Francisco. 2008.

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