Segregation and part time work obstacles to adequate employment
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February 2003. Segregation and part-time work: Obstacles to adequate employment:. Stephanie Steinmetz ( [email protected]) Johann Handl ( [email protected]) Institute of Sociology, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg (FAU) ,Germany.

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Segregation and part time work obstacles to adequate employment

February 2003

Segregation and part-time work:

Obstacles to adequate employment:

Stephanie Steinmetz ([email protected])

Johann Handl ([email protected])

Institute of Sociology,

University of Erlangen-Nuremberg (FAU) ,Germany

FENICs

Female Employment and Family Formation in National Institutional Contexts


Segregation in the european and scientific context

„Segregation“ in the European and Scientific Context

  • Political Argument:

     The EU focused on various „gender gaps“:

     Sex-specific occupational segregation

     important reason for the wage-gap and women‘s lower occupational status.

  • Scientific Argument:

     Various problems as to the quality of data:

    Debateon the question of measurement

     no agreement about the amount of occupational segregation and their historical change over time.

FENICs

Female Employment and Family Formation in National Institutional Contexts


Theoretical and methodological concept

Theoretical concept

measured by…

used classification

“Segregation":generic term which includes the aspects of…

Sex-typingof occupations

Standardised Index of Dissimilarity (DST)

ISCO88 3-digit

Sex-specific occupationalchances

Index of Dissimilarity (D)

ISCO88 3-digit

Sex-specificinequalities

Aritmethic mean, variances

ISEI 3-digit

Theoretical and Methodological Concept

Used data-set: European Labour Force Survey (ELFS) for the years 1992-2000.

Central variables: “hww”, "country", "sex", “education”, “ISCO88”, “ISEI”.

FENICs

Female Employment and Family Formation in National Institutional Contexts


Segregation and part time work obstacles to adequate employment

Correlation between Dst und D  Country-Typology 2000

Source: ELFS, Zig-DHT4, own calculations

FENICs

Female Employment and Family Formation in National Institutional Contexts


Segregation and part time work obstacles to adequate employment

Main hypotheses concerning the influence of different variables on the level of sex-typing and the occupational status of employees

  • A reduction of working time increases the tendency to work in a „female-dominated“ occupation and reduces the attained occupational status.

  • The tendencies described above can also be expected when the educational level is reduced.

  • Both of these tendencies are strengthened for women (interaction effects).

FENICs

Female Employment and Family Formation in National Institutional Contexts


Main effects on the tendency to work in a female dominated occupation es de uk and se 2000

Main effects on the tendency to work in a „female-dominated“ occupation; ES, DE, UK and SE; 2000

Source: ELFS, Zig-DHT4, own calculations

FENICs

Female Employment and Family Formation in National Institutional Contexts


Segregation and part time work obstacles to adequate employment

Main- and interaction effects on the tendency to work in a „female-dominated“ occupation; DE and ES; 2000

Source: ELFS, Zig-DHT4, own calculations

FENICs

Female Employment and Family Formation in National Institutional Contexts


Segregation and part time work obstacles to adequate employment

Differences in occupational status of female working time groups in seven EU-Countries 2000: ISEI3(arithm. mean)

Source: ELFS, Zig-DHT4, own calculations

FENICs

Female Employment and Family Formation in National Institutional Contexts


Main results i

Main Results I

  • Dimension of sex-typing:

    Part- and marginal-time: In all countries the tendency to work in a „typical“ female occupation is strengthened (except of SE for marginal-time).

    Educational level: Division between countries: A reduction in education increases the tendency to work in a„typical“ female occupation in UK and DE, whereas education has nearly no effect in ES and SE.

    Sex: In all countries women tend to be more employed in „typical“ female occupations. The interaction effects increase the tendency described above (except of SE and UK for marginal-time)

FENICs

Female Employment and Family Formation in National Institutional Contexts


Main results ii

Main Results II

  • Dimension of sex-specific inequalities:

    Part-time: Differentiation between countries: The average status of female part-timers is close to that of female full-time workers in DE, ES, FR and NL, whereas big differences exist between the status of female part- and full-time work in UK and SE.

    Marginal-time: leads in all countries to the lowest occupational status of women.

FENICs

Female Employment and Family Formation in National Institutional Contexts


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