Segregation and part time work obstacles to adequate employment
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February 2003. Segregation and part-time work: Obstacles to adequate employment:. Stephanie Steinmetz ( [email protected]) Johann Handl ( [email protected]) Institute of Sociology, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg (FAU) ,Germany.

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February 2003

Segregation and part-time work:

Obstacles to adequate employment:

Stephanie Steinmetz ([email protected])

Johann Handl ([email protected])

Institute of Sociology,

University of Erlangen-Nuremberg (FAU) ,Germany

FENICs

Female Employment and Family Formation in National Institutional Contexts


„Segregation“ in the European and Scientific Context

  • Political Argument:

     The EU focused on various „gender gaps“:

     Sex-specific occupational segregation

     important reason for the wage-gap and women‘s lower occupational status.

  • Scientific Argument:

     Various problems as to the quality of data:

    Debateon the question of measurement

     no agreement about the amount of occupational segregation and their historical change over time.

FENICs

Female Employment and Family Formation in National Institutional Contexts


Theoretical concept

measured by…

used classification

“Segregation":generic term which includes the aspects of…

Sex-typingof occupations

Standardised Index of Dissimilarity (DST)

ISCO88 3-digit

Sex-specific occupationalchances

Index of Dissimilarity (D)

ISCO88 3-digit

Sex-specificinequalities

Aritmethic mean, variances

ISEI 3-digit

Theoretical and Methodological Concept

Used data-set: European Labour Force Survey (ELFS) for the years 1992-2000.

Central variables: “hww”, "country", "sex", “education”, “ISCO88”, “ISEI”.

FENICs

Female Employment and Family Formation in National Institutional Contexts


Correlation between Dst und D  Country-Typology 2000

Source: ELFS, Zig-DHT4, own calculations

FENICs

Female Employment and Family Formation in National Institutional Contexts


Main hypotheses concerning the influence of different variables on the level of sex-typing and the occupational status of employees

  • A reduction of working time increases the tendency to work in a „female-dominated“ occupation and reduces the attained occupational status.

  • The tendencies described above can also be expected when the educational level is reduced.

  • Both of these tendencies are strengthened for women (interaction effects).

FENICs

Female Employment and Family Formation in National Institutional Contexts


Main effects on the tendency to work in a „female-dominated“ occupation; ES, DE, UK and SE; 2000

Source: ELFS, Zig-DHT4, own calculations

FENICs

Female Employment and Family Formation in National Institutional Contexts


Main- and interaction effects on the tendency to work in a „female-dominated“ occupation; DE and ES; 2000

Source: ELFS, Zig-DHT4, own calculations

FENICs

Female Employment and Family Formation in National Institutional Contexts


Differences in occupational status of female working time groups in seven EU-Countries 2000: ISEI3(arithm. mean)

Source: ELFS, Zig-DHT4, own calculations

FENICs

Female Employment and Family Formation in National Institutional Contexts


Main Results I

  • Dimension of sex-typing:

    Part- and marginal-time: In all countries the tendency to work in a „typical“ female occupation is strengthened (except of SE for marginal-time).

    Educational level: Division between countries: A reduction in education increases the tendency to work in a„typical“ female occupation in UK and DE, whereas education has nearly no effect in ES and SE.

    Sex: In all countries women tend to be more employed in „typical“ female occupations. The interaction effects increase the tendency described above (except of SE and UK for marginal-time)

FENICs

Female Employment and Family Formation in National Institutional Contexts


Main Results II

  • Dimension of sex-specific inequalities:

    Part-time: Differentiation between countries: The average status of female part-timers is close to that of female full-time workers in DE, ES, FR and NL, whereas big differences exist between the status of female part- and full-time work in UK and SE.

    Marginal-time: leads in all countries to the lowest occupational status of women.

FENICs

Female Employment and Family Formation in National Institutional Contexts


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