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ARRIVALS. TIME TO TRAVEL. ISSUE 01 / 3.05.2009 / NOT FOR SALE. WWW.BALTIA.COM. Long Range Navigation (LRN) / Flight Planning & Plotting. Initial Ground Training. TIME TO TRAVEL. ARRIVALS. Long Range Navigation (LRN) / Flight Planning & Plotting. 9) International Routing

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ISSUE 01 / 3.05.2009 / NOT FOR SALE


Long Range Navigation (LRN) /

Flight Planning & Plotting

Initial Ground Training



long range navigation lrn flight planning plotting
Long Range Navigation (LRN) / Flight Planning & Plotting

9) International Routing

10) Fuel Planning

11) Re-Release

12) Diversion

13) Course Offsets

14) Flight Plan Recording

15) Plotting

16) Fuel Log

17) FIR/Oceanic Communications

1) General Introduction

2) Sample Route Scenario

3) Background

4) Alternate Airports

5) Emergency Airports

6) Navigation Charts

7) ICAO Flight Plan

8) International Airspace Structures

• Class 1/Class 2

• RVSM/RNP Airspace


general introduction
General Introduction
  • Safety
  • Compliance
  • Efficiency

NAVTECH is divided into two main user interfaces as follows.

  • 1. FOMS - Flight Operations Management System
  • 2. GUI - Graphical User Interface

NAVTECH is divided into two main user interfaces as follows:

1. FOMS - Flight Operations Management System


Flight Plan En-route Section

international flight plans routing
International Flight Plans & Routing
  • An ICAO flight plan must be filed for all flights.
  • The Dispatcher will file the ICAO flight plan with the appropriate ATC facility in advance of the proposed departure time.
  • Careful evaluation of the Flight Plan will help identify areas that may affect flight safety and fuel efficiency. Review the Flight Plan/Release to ensure that correct parameters were entered

EROPS: B747 Passenger Operations

  • The Regulations require passenger operations on airplanes with 3 or more engines to comply with ETOPS requirements if any part of the intended route is more than 180-minutes from a suitable airport (based on one-engine inoperative, still air cruise).
  • Baltia Air Lines is not authorized for ETOPS operations for B747 Passenger airplanes, therefore these flights will be planned with Maximum Diversion Time (MDT) of 180-minutes.
  • Dispatchers may be required to alter the flight route in order to remain within 180-minutes of other suitable airports.
selecting emergency airports
Selecting Emergency Airports
  • 121.97 Airports: Required data.
  • (a) Each certificate holder conducting domestic or flag operations must show that each route it submits for approval has enough airports that are properly equipped and adequate for the proposed operation, considering such items as size, surface, obstructions, facilities, public protection, lighting, navigational and communications aids, and ATC.
  • (b) Each certificate holder conducting domestic or flag operations must show that it has an approved system for obtaining, maintaining, and distributing to appropriate personnel current aeronautical data for each airport it uses to ensure a safe operation at that airport.
etp equal time point
ETP (Equal Time Point)

1) An Equal Time Point (ETP) is an en route point where the time to continue ahead to destination or specified ETP alternate airport equals the time to return to departure or specified ETP alternate airport. Accordingly, the ETP is the most critical point en route.

  • a) The Dispatcher must designate an ETP on any flight where the planned route places a four engine aircraft more than ninety minutes from an adequate airport. An adequate airport is defined as one in which: The aircraft is able to land within 60 percent of the effective landing distance available.
  • The NAVTECH Flight Planning System and calculates ETP fuel as an en route requirement. Actual fuel on board must be equal to or greater than the ETP diversion fuel listed on the flight plan for all ETPs.

(1) Airports.

  • (i) Facilities.
  • (ii) Public protection. After February 15, 2008, for ETOPS beyond 180 minutes or operations in the North Polar area and South Polar area, this includes facilities at each airport or in the immediate area sufficient to protect the passengers from the elements and to see to their welfare.
  • (iii) Navigational and communications aids.
  • (iv) Construction affecting takeoff, landing, or ground operations.
  • (v) Air traffic facilities.
  • (2) Runways, clearways and stop ways.
  • (3) Displaced thresholds.
  • (4) Obstacles.
  • (5) Instrument flight procedures
  • (6) Special information.

Crash Fire Rescue Code for B747 Passenger Service Aircraft

  • In General, the Crash Fire Rescue code for B747 Passenger Operations is FAA Index E or ICAO Category 9 depending on the airport certification.
  • FAA Index D & ICAO Category 8 is permitted at airports which the average daily departure for aircraft of the next higher category is less than 5, (Reference: FAR Part 139.315)

139.315 Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Index determination.

  • (a) An index is required by paragraph (c) of this section for each certificate holder. The Index is determined by a combination of—
  • (1) The length of air carrier aircraft and
  • (2) Average daily departures of air carrier aircraft.
  • (b) For the purpose of Index determination, air carrier aircraft lengths are grouped as follows:

(4) Index D includes aircraft at least 159 feet but less than

200 feet in length.

(5) Index E includes aircraft at least 200 feet in length.

(c) Except as provided in §139.319(c), if there are five or more average daily departures of air carrier aircraft in a single Index group serving that airport, the longest aircraft with an average of five or more daily departures determines the Index required for the airport. When there are fewer than five average daily departures of the longest air carrier aircraft serving the airport, the Index required for the airport will be the next lower Index group than the Index group prescribed for the longest aircraft.


139.317 Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Equipment and agents.

Unless otherwise authorized by the Administrator, the following rescue and firefighting equipment and agents are the minimum required for the Indexes referred to in §139.315:

(d) Index D. Three vehicles—

  • (1) One vehicle carrying the extinguishing agents as specified in paragraphs (a)(1) or (a)(2) of this section; and
  • (2) Two vehicles carrying an amount of water and the commensurate quantity of AFFF so the total quantity of water for foam production carried by all three vehicles is at least 4,000 gallons.

(e) Index E. Three vehicles—

  • (1) One vehicle carrying the extinguishing agents as specified in paragraphs (a)(1) or (a)(2) of this section; and
  • (2) Two vehicles carrying an amount of water and the commensurate quantity of AFFF so the total quantity of water for foam production carried by all three vehicles is at least 6,000 gallons.
alternate airports
Alternate Airports

Take-off Alternates

  • Must not be more than two hours from the departure airport
  • Departure alternate airports and weather conditions must meet the requirements of Baltia Op Spec (C055) for alternate airports
alternate airports1
Alternate Airports
  • Alternate for Destination
fuel planning
Fuel Planning

14 CFR 121.647(a), 121.647(b), 121.647(c), 121.647(d)

Computations for fuel required shall consider the following:

  • Wind and other weather conditions forecast
  • One instrument approach and possible missed approach at destination
  • Anticipated traffic delays
  • Any other conditions that may delay landing of the aircraft

The dispatcher will provide the fuel vendor and station operations representative the fuel release authorizing the fueling of the aircraft and amount.

fuel planning1
Fuel Planning
  • General
  • International Minimum Fuel Requirements
  • Island Reserve
  • Domestic Minimum Fuel Requirements (48 Contiguous States and District of Columbia)
  • Extra Fuel
  • Hold Fuel
  • Minimum Fuel for Landing
extra hold contingency fuel
Extra, Hold, & Contingency Fuel



2nd Hold: Added as Contingency Fuel: ENROUTE FUEL PLANNING

re release

Op Spec B044

  • When it is not possible to load sufficient fuel at departure to comply with the international fuel reserve requirement of FAR 121.645, or a fuel savings may be achieved, it may be advantageous to dispatch to the scheduled destination with a re-dispatch from an en route destination. While en route, after determining required fuel exists, a re-dispatch to the scheduled destination is possible.

Dispatch will utilize Re-dispatch flight plans whenever beneficial to increase maximum payload or reduce carriage of excess fuel. Flights in excess of 5.5 hours flight time have the potential to be released on Re-dispatch flight plans.

En Route Fuel Reserves Required by § 121.645(b)(2) for Flight Planned Utilizing Planned Redispatch/Rerelease
flight route selection
  • Approved Routes
  • Communication & Navigation Facilities
  • Dispatcher / PIC Concurrence
  • Class I, Class II, Op Specs
class i
Class I
  • Under Class I Navigation standards, Aircraft operations are conducted on any segment which is entirely within usable range of airways (service volume) of standard navigation facilities (VOR, VOR/DME, NDB). Navigation on segments with a published “MEA Gap” is also considered Class I.
  • Class I navigation requires the aircraft’s position be “reliably fixed” at least once each hour
class ii
Class II
  • The Company is authorized to conduct Class II navigation using multiple long-range navigation systems within the areas specified in Operations specifications paragraph B050
dispatch flight planning
Dispatch Flight Planning
  • Route Evaluations

Approved based upon B050

Required Nav/Comm B050

Limitations & Provisions per Op Specs

Available Facilities & Services

Dispatch Center Requirements

Routes w/I Controlled Airspace

Supplemental Rules

Flight Schedules for Supplemental Rules

Extended Over-water Operations

(FOM 6.14-6.15)

rvsm airspace
RVSM Airspace
  • The following equipment is mandatory for RVSM operations:

• Two independent, primary altimetry systems with pitot-static ice protection.

• One autopilot.

• One automatic altitude hold system.

• One altitude alert device.

• SSR Transponder (using the same altitude source as the selected autopilot and altitude alerter).

For all operations in Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum airspace, 0.90 Mach is not to be exceeded and for Operations at gross weights less than 235,868 kilograms (520,000 pounds), 0.87 Mach is not to be exceeded between flight level 290 and 340.

rnp airspace
RNP Airspace
  • RNP is RNAV with on-board navigation monitoring and alerting
  • RNP is a statement of navigation performance necessary for operation within a defined airspace
  • A critical component of RNP is the ability of the aircraft navigation system to monitor its achieved navigation performance, and to identify for the pilot whether the operational requirement is, or is not being met during an operation
  • This on-board monitoring and alerting capability therefore allows a lessened reliance on air traffic control intervention (via radar monitoring, automatic dependent surveillance (ADS), multi-lateration, communications), and/or route separation to achieve the overall safety of the operation
  • RNP capability of the aircraft is a major component in determining the separation criteria to ensure that the overall containment of the operation is met
operational considerations rnp airspace
Operational Considerations / RNP Airspace
  • The operator / PIC & Dispatcher, must continue to ensure they comply with the RNAV operating requirements;

Checking Notices to Airmen (NOTAMS),

Availability of Navigational Aids (NAVAID),

Airworthiness of aircraft systems, and

Aircrew qualification

Preflight Considerations

Minimum Equipment List (MEL)

Autopilot and Flight Director (as required by RNP value)

Other Dispatch RNP Assessments (for example, predictive RAIM)

NAVAID Exclusion

Navigation Database Currency

flight plan recording
Flight Plan Recording

• The word MASTER will be written in the upper right hand corner of the flight plan.

• Record the ATIS, ATC clearance, time out/off/on/in.

• The FO will begin flight plan tracking at the first waypoint after passing 10,000 ft:

• Add the OFF time plus the three (3) minute circuit time, plus the Z-TME to the first ETA to the first waypoint. Add the next Z-TME to the ETA to get next waypoint ETA.

• Record the waypoint ETA beneath the ETA/ATA column.

• After waypoint passage, record the ATA in the ETA/ATA column for that waypoint.

• Calculate the score. Show the fuel and time score as (+) if ahead and (-) if behind. Record the fuel score and the time score in the T/F DIF column.

• When cleared to a fix, the FO will record the revised ETA to the waypoint and draw a line starting at the closest waypoint prior to the new clearance to the point now cleared to.

course offsets
Course Offsets
  • If deviating from the assigned track due to weather or other unforeseen circumstances, obtain a revised clearance prior to initiating alternate action. When in NOPAC or MNPS airspace follow the contingency procedures on the appropriate en-route chart. If unable to obtain a revised clearance, accomplish the following interim actions:

• Broadcast call sign, flight level, heading, position (including the ATS route) and intentions on 121.5 MHZ at suitable intervals until an ATC clearance is received.

• Advise ATC when a deviation is no longer required, or when a deviation has been completed and the aircraft has returned to the centerline of its cleared route

AOM V1 17.6

inflight reanalysis
Inflight Reanalysis

When requesting an re-anaylsis during flight, the Captain will pass the following information to Dispatch:

• Flight Plan position from which the reanalysis originates

• ETA at that position

• Flight level at that position

• Estimated fuel at that position

• ATC reroute, if applicable

• New flight level, if applicable

• Aircraft configuration; normal or non-normal

amending a dispatch release
Amending a Dispatch Release
  • The Captain will advise the dispatcher immediately when an amended release is necessary.
  • Each person who amends a dispatch or flight release enroute shall record that amendment.
  • The Captain and the Dispatcher must jointly approve the change.

Occasionally conditions or situations require an aircraft to land at an airport to which it was not originally released.

There are three primary reasons for a diversion


maintenance irregularities, or

an aircraft emergency.

A diversion will require an amended Flight Release. However, the Pilot in Command has latitude to deviate from a dispatch release without obtaining a new release if safety warrants.

diversion notifications
Diversion Notifications
  • Reports to Flight Dispatch

Crews will advise Dispatch via message, phone patch, ACARS, or SATCOM when a diversion is contemplated or initiated. (FOM 8.23)

  • Reports to Operations Control

Dispatch will advise Operations Control as soon as possible when a diversion is contemplated or initiated (OCM 7.21)

Once Confirmation of a Diversion has been determined:

Contact the Diversion Station

diversion dispatch release
Diversion Dispatch Release

Dispatch will provide a re-analysis to the new destination, as required while the aircraft is en-route

Once on ground the new flight plan will be issued to the original destination (pending any restrictions)

Flight Plans will be remarked in the ATC Filing as: “DVRSN RECOVERY”

fir oceanic communications
FIR/Oceanic Communications.


  • Radio frequencies are constantly changing. Thus, it is important that operators consult current oceanic charts and the FAA Website at for the most up-to-date information.
position report
Position Report
  • Position reports are required while flying out of radar contact or when requested by air traffic control. Information is given in a specified order. It is a good idea to practice giving a full position report ahead of time in order to reduce radio congestion (See Aeronautical Information Manual AIM 5-3-2).
  • Identification
  • Position
  • Time
  • Altitude or flight level
  • Name and time estimate of next reporting point
  • Name only of next succeeding reporting point