Unit 2 population and migration
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Unit 2: Population and Migration. Population. Part 1: Where is everyone?. What is population distribution?. “ Population distributions are descriptions of locations on the Earth’s surface where individuals or groups live.”.

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Unit 2: Population and Migration

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Unit 2:Population and Migration


Population


Part 1: Where is everyone?


What is population distribution?


“Population distributions are descriptions of locations on the Earth’s surface where individuals or groups live.”


Two-thirds of the World’s Population is concentrated in four specific areas.


East Asia


South Asia


Southeast Asia


Europe


What is ecumene?


“Ecumene is the portion of the Earth’s surface occupied by permanent human settlement.”


How do you measure population?


“Population Density is the number of people occupying an area of land.”


What inferences can you make by looking at countries with a high percentage of arable land but a low agricultural density?

What inferences can you make about a country with a high physiological density but a low arithmetic density?


Part 2: Where has the World’s population increased?


How do you measure population change?


“You can measure population change through the Crude Birth Rate, the Crude Death Rate, and the Natural Increase Rate.”


The Crude Birth Rate (CBR) is the total number of live births a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society.


The Crude Death Rate (CDR) is the total number of deathsa year for every 1,000 people alive in the society.


The Natural Increase Rate (NIR) is the percentage by which a population grows in a year.


NIR = (Crude birth rate − Crude death rate) / 10


2.992% = (37.89 − 7.97) / 10


The Total Fertility Rate(TFR) is the average number of children a woman will have during her childbearing years.


The Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) is the annual number of deaths of infants under 1 year compared with total live births.


Life Expectancy measures the average number of years a newborn can expect to live at current morbidity levels.


Part 3: Why is population increasing at different rates?


What is a population pyramid?


“A population pyramid is a graphical illustration that shows the distribution of various age groups as well as the sex ratio, the number of males per hundred females and the dependency ratio, the number of people who are too old or too young to work.


What is a model?


“A model attempts toexplain or demonstrate why something exists the way it does. “


What is the demographic transition model?


“The demographic transition model explains the transition from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates as a country develops from a pre-industrial to an industrialized economic system.


Stage 1: Low Growth

  • People depended on hunting and gathering for food.

  • Most of human history spent during this stage.

  • The NIR is essentially zero.

  • There is no country still in stage 1.


Stage 2: High Growth

  • Brought about by the Industrial Revolution.

  • CDR Plummets while the CBR remains the same as in stage 1.

  • Allowed to spread to LDRs by the medical revolution (20th century)


Stage 3: Moderate Growth

  • Brought about by cultural changes.

  • Characterized by a sudden drop in the CBR.

  • There is still growth but not as fast as in Stage 2


Stage 3: Moderate Growth

  • The CBR = CDR

  • Zero Population Growth

  • Low TFR


Stage 5: Negative Growth

  • Though not official, some say that there is a Stage Five.

  • In stage five, CDR is greater than CBR largely because of an aging population.

  • The NIR is below Zero.

  • Much of Europe is entering this stage.


Part 4: Overpopulation?


My theory is that population is growing too rapidly because while population increases geometrically, food supply increases arithmetically.

Thomas Malthus


Thomas Malthus’ Theory


Malthus Supporters:

  • Malthus’ theory did not take into account the rapid growth of LDCs.

  • World population is not just stripping food but a lot of other resources as well.


Malthus Critics:

  • His theory is based on a belief that the world’s supply is fixed rather than expanding.

  • A larger population could stimulate economic growth to produce greater resources.


The Reality of Population Growth


Food is increasing more rapidly than predicted by Malthus.


Birth rates are declining.


Why are birth rates declining?


How do governments affect population?


What is the difference between expansive and restrictive population policies??


“Expansive population policies encourage large families. Restrictive population policies seek to reduce the rate of natural increase.”


How does disease affect population?


What is the Epidemiologic Transition Model?


“The Epidemiologic Transition Model focuses on distinctive causes of death in each stage of the demographic transition.”


What is the largest epidemic of our time?


Migration


Part 2: What is migration?


Is it Cyclical, Periodic, or Migration

  • Travelling from your house to school each day.

  • A rancher moving his herd from season to season.

  • Taking a vacation in the summer.

  • Moving from Louisiana to California.

  • You attending Southeastern Louisiana University.

  • You attending Harvard.


What is the difference between emigration and immigration?


“Immigration is migration to a location, emigration is migration from a location.”


Part 2: Why do people migrate?


Examples of Forced Migration:

  • The Largest: The Atlantic Slave Trade

  • British relocation of prisoners to Australia

  • US relocation of Native Americans

  • Forced Counter-migration


Trivia:

What country were most Africans sent to?


Voluntary Migration


“I developed 11 laws of migration. These laws examine the reasons for migration, the distance of migration, and the characteristics of migrants.”

E.G. Ravenstein


Ravenstein’s Laws (or MODEL)

  • Every migration flow generates a return or counter-migration.

  • The majority of migrants move a short distance.

  • Migrants who move longer distances tend to choose big-city destinations.

  • Urban residents are less migratory than inhabitants of rural areas.

  • Families are less likely to make international moves than young adults.

  • There exists an inverse relationship between source and destination (The Gravity Model).


Reasons for Migrating


Environmental

#1 Reason: Economic

Cultural

Cultural

#1 Reason: Economic

Environmental


What is distance decay?


“Distance decay states that the intensity of human activity, process, or function declines as distance from its source increases.”


What is step migration?


“Step Migration is the phenomenon in which migration happens in stages.”


What is an intervening obstacle??


“An intervening obstacle is an environmental or cultural feature that hinders migration.”


Migration Transition Model


Part 3: Characteristics of Migrants


Part 3: Where do people migrate?


Part 1: Migration History


Global Migration Time-Line


Part 2: World Migration Patterns


Part 3: US External Migration Patterns


US Immigration Timeline:


Part 4: US Internal Migration Patterns


US Internal Immigration Timeline:


Center of US Population


Top Ten Fastest Growing Cities


Voluntary African-American Migrations

Blacks moved to Industrial Belt (i.e., Chicago, New York, Detroit) and Los Angeles during World Wars (labor shortages).


Part 5: Regional Internal Migration Patterns


Part 6: Obstacles with Migration


Areas of Refugees


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