Abyssal

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Factors of the Ocean. AbioticBiotic. Abiotic Factors. The Abyssal Zone is 6,500 ? 19,500 feet deep.The temperature of the Deep Zone can range from 0 degrees Celsius to 5 degrees Celsius, because sunlight does not penetrates to the ocean floor. The pressure in the Deep Zone is extremely high, a

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Abyssal

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1. Abyssal/Deep Zone (Abyssopelagic) By: Michael Mahoney Kevin Guy Joseph Sapiha

2. Factors of the Ocean Abiotic Biotic

3. Abiotic Factors The Abyssal Zone is 6,500 – 19,500 feet deep. The temperature of the Deep Zone can range from 0 degrees Celsius to 5 degrees Celsius, because sunlight does not penetrates to the ocean floor. The pressure in the Deep Zone is extremely high, about 12,000 kg.

4. Abiotic Factors continued.. Nutrients are scarce in the Abyssal Zone. The little amount of nutrients in the Abyssopelagic Zone are brought up from the ocean floor by “Abyssal Storms,” and “Hydrothermal Vents.” Organisms in this zone also receive nutrients by consuming other creatures.

5. Abiotic Factors continued… Wave action can occasionally affect the Abyssopelagic waters from the currents of “Abyssal Storms.” Salinity is rather low, because there is no evaporation because of the icy cold waters. Since the conditions are so harsh and cold, not many organisms inhabit this zone, so there is a sufficient amount of nutrients.

6. About the Abyssal Zone The Abyssal Zone is 4,000 m underwater. Sunlight never penetrates this zone. There are few organisms. It is icy cold. Very few nutrients. Enormous pressure. Low salinity. High amounts of dissolved gases.

7. Chemosynthesis Chemosynthesis is the conversion of gases such as Carbon Dioxide and Methane into organic matter. Methane serves as the energy source just like the sun serves as the energy source in photosynthesis. Chemosynthesis

8. Abiotic Biotic Rocks Gold Magnesium Nodules Diamonds Sand Parts from shipwrecks Black Smoker (Hydrothermal Vent) Black Swallower Angler Fish Giant Squid Medusa (Giant Jellyfish) Tube Worms Black Dragon Fish Hatchet Fish Oar Fish Granrojo

9. Characteristics of the Creatures of the Deep Mainly all are Carnivorous. They have big eyes so they can see. Giant teeth so they can effectively hunt their prey. Many have the ability to use bioluminescence.

10. Bioluminescence Bioluminescence is the production of light by organisms through chemical reactions and the presence of bacteria in external pockets of their bodies. The most known fish that has this quality is the angler fish.

11. Black Swallower The Black Swallower belongs to the family Chiasmodontidae. The average length of this fish is 25 cm. He is known for swallowing fish larger than himself. This fish unhinges its jaw, enabling it to swallow prey. The Black Swallower feeds on bony fish.

12. Angler Fish Angler Fish are part of the Lophiiformes. Angler Fish are considered to be bony fish. There are 200 different species of this fish. Angler Fish are blind. They use the light on their head to draw in their prey.

13. Hatchetfish They are found in the tropical and sub-tropical waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. Hatchetfish have bioluminescent photophores. They use counter illumination to escape their predators.

14. Black Dragon Fish The Black Dragon Fish has bioluminescent abilities. Unlike other organisms it can glow and perceive red or blue-green light. Other fish cannot see its light, which enables it to hunt without alerting other predators.

15. Granrojo One of the largest jellyfish. The Granrojo can grow up to 12 feet. There are 23 members of this species. Instead of long tentacles they have fleshy arms.

16. Global Warming’s Impact Global warming has affected the deep zone by: slowing the growth rate of fish. increasing the volume of the ocean (melting ice caps). as the O-Zone deteriorates, the water becomes slightly hotter.

17. Global Warming’s Impact continued... The dramatic change of temperature in the middle layers of the ocean will prevent the nutrient-rich waters of the Deep Zone from upwelling to the surface. If the mixing rate of the water is altered then the rate of heat transfer will be modified as well.

20. Human Activity/Pollution Humans are causing pollution in the Abyssal Zone by dumping metal objects into the water. When an oil drum, metal pipe, or anything that has metal in it is dumped into the water, eventually it sinks to the bottom. As it reaches the bottom, it starts to rust and disintegrate. When this happens, toxins are released and poison hurts the fish.

21. Questions 1) What are the two general factors in the ocean? Explain. 2) What are the six factors that affect life in the ocean? 3)Name three organisms that inhabit the Abyssal Zone. 4) What is Chemosynthesis?

22. More Questions 5) Does Global Warming affect the Abyssal Zone? Explain. 6) What is the affect of pollution on the Abyssal Zone? 7) What is Tidal Mixing and how does it affect life in the Abyssal Zone? 8) What is the most commonly known fish that possesses the ability of Bioluminescence?

23. More Questions 9) What is the average depth of the Abyssal Zone? 10) What is the average temperature of the Abyssal Zone? 11) What causes the salinity in the Abyssal Zone to be so low?

24. More Questions 12) What is the scientific name for the Abyssal Zone? 13) What are the two most commonly occurring gases in the process of Chemosynthesis? 14) What are some of the characteristics of Abyssal creatures? Explain their significance. 15) What are the factors that make exploration of the Abyssal Zone difficult?

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