Taxonomy
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Taxonomy. The science of naming organisms. Aristotle. Plant or animal? If an animal, does it Fly Swim Crawl Simple classifications Used common names. Carolus Linnaeus. Described organisms with two word names, instead of polynomials Developed binomial nomenclature

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Taxonomy

Taxonomy

The science of naming organisms.


Aristotle

Aristotle

  • Plant or animal?

  • If an animal, does it

    • Fly

    • Swim

    • Crawl

  • Simple classifications

  • Used common names


Carolus linnaeus

Carolus Linnaeus

  • Described organisms with two word names, instead of polynomials

  • Developed binomial nomenclature

  • First word = genus name

  • Second word = species name


Why binomial nomenclature

Why binomial nomenclature?

  • Much easier than a 10+ word name under old “polynomial system”

  • Same name no matter where you go

  • Less confusion

  • Binomial = SCIENTIFIC NAME


Scientific names you need to know

Scientific Names You Need to Know

  • Homo sapiens

  • Canis lupus

  • Felis domesticus

  • Pan pan


Taxonomic hierarchy

Taxonomic hierarchy

  • Names organisms and their relationships from very broad to very specific


All organisms classified in a hierarchy

All organisms classified in a hierarchy

  • Kingdom (broadest)

  • Phylum

  • Class

  • Order

  • Family

  • Genus

  • Species (most specific)


Notes assignment

Notes assignment:

  • Look up the classification for humans for all seven hierarchies and write them below.


What is a species anyway

What is a species anyway?

  • Biological species concept

    • A group of actually or potentially breeding natural groups that are reproductively isolated from other groups.

      • Ernst Mayr, 1924

  • BSC’s problems

    • Hybrids

      • Sterile offspring of two different species

    • Asexual organisms


  • How many are out there

    How many are out there?

    • Scientists currently estimate that

      • There are 10 million species worldwide

      • Over 5 million live in the tropics

      • Most unnamed species are small or microscopic


    Why is taxonomy useful

    Why is taxonomy useful?

    • Helps prevent confusion among scientists

    • Helps to show how organisms are related

    • Can be used to reconstruct phylogenies – evolutionary histories – of an organism or group


    A note on cladograms

    A note on cladograms

    • Graph showing when different groups diverged from a common ancestral line

    • Points where they diverge are often noted with a feature that was different between ancestral group and a “new” feature in the group that split off.


    Bird cladogram

    Bird Cladogram


    The 6 kingdoms

    The 6 kingdoms

    • Prokaryotes (Used to be 1 kingdom, Monera)

      • Archaebacteria

      • Eubacteria

    • Eukaryotes

      • Fungi

      • Protista

      • Animal

      • Plantae


    Overview of the 6 kingdoms

    Overview of the 6 kingdoms

    • Archaebacteria

      • Unicellular

      • Live in extreme environments

      • Prokaryotic

    • Eubacteria

      • Unicellular

      • Prokaryotic

      • “Common bacteria”


    Overview of the 6 kingdoms1

    Overview of the 6 kingdoms

    • Protista

      • Eukaryotic

      • Unicellular or colonial

      • Lots of different life styles

    • Fungi

      • Cell walls made of chitin

      • Eukaryotic

      • Multicellular

      • External heterotrophs


    Overview of the 6 kingdoms2

    Overview of the 6 kingdoms

    • Plantae

      • Eukaryotic & Multicellular

      • Cell walls made of cellulose

      • Autotrophic

    • Animalia

      • Eukaryotic & Multicellular

      • No cell walls

      • Internal heterotrophs


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