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Taxonomy. The science of naming organisms. Aristotle. Plant or animal? If an animal, does it Fly Swim Crawl Simple classifications Used common names. Carolus Linnaeus. Described organisms with two word names, instead of polynomials Developed binomial nomenclature

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taxonomy

Taxonomy

The science of naming organisms.

aristotle
Aristotle
  • Plant or animal?
  • If an animal, does it
    • Fly
    • Swim
    • Crawl
  • Simple classifications
  • Used common names
carolus linnaeus
Carolus Linnaeus
  • Described organisms with two word names, instead of polynomials
  • Developed binomial nomenclature
  • First word = genus name
  • Second word = species name
why binomial nomenclature
Why binomial nomenclature?
  • Much easier than a 10+ word name under old “polynomial system”
  • Same name no matter where you go
  • Less confusion
  • Binomial = SCIENTIFIC NAME
scientific names you need to know
Scientific Names You Need to Know
  • Homo sapiens
  • Canis lupus
  • Felis domesticus
  • Pan pan
taxonomic hierarchy
Taxonomic hierarchy
  • Names organisms and their relationships from very broad to very specific
all organisms classified in a hierarchy
All organisms classified in a hierarchy
  • Kingdom (broadest)
  • Phylum
  • Class
  • Order
  • Family
  • Genus
  • Species (most specific)
notes assignment
Notes assignment:
  • Look up the classification for humans for all seven hierarchies and write them below.
what is a species anyway
What is a species anyway?
  • Biological species concept
    • A group of actually or potentially breeding natural groups that are reproductively isolated from other groups.
          • Ernst Mayr, 1924
  • BSC’s problems
    • Hybrids
      • Sterile offspring of two different species
    • Asexual organisms
how many are out there
How many are out there?
  • Scientists currently estimate that
    • There are 10 million species worldwide
    • Over 5 million live in the tropics
    • Most unnamed species are small or microscopic
why is taxonomy useful
Why is taxonomy useful?
  • Helps prevent confusion among scientists
  • Helps to show how organisms are related
  • Can be used to reconstruct phylogenies – evolutionary histories – of an organism or group
a note on cladograms
A note on cladograms
  • Graph showing when different groups diverged from a common ancestral line
  • Points where they diverge are often noted with a feature that was different between ancestral group and a “new” feature in the group that split off.
the 6 kingdoms
The 6 kingdoms
  • Prokaryotes (Used to be 1 kingdom, Monera)
    • Archaebacteria
    • Eubacteria
  • Eukaryotes
    • Fungi
    • Protista
    • Animal
    • Plantae
overview of the 6 kingdoms
Overview of the 6 kingdoms
  • Archaebacteria
    • Unicellular
    • Live in extreme environments
    • Prokaryotic
  • Eubacteria
    • Unicellular
    • Prokaryotic
    • “Common bacteria”
overview of the 6 kingdoms1
Overview of the 6 kingdoms
  • Protista
    • Eukaryotic
    • Unicellular or colonial
    • Lots of different life styles
  • Fungi
    • Cell walls made of chitin
    • Eukaryotic
    • Multicellular
    • External heterotrophs
overview of the 6 kingdoms2
Overview of the 6 kingdoms
  • Plantae
    • Eukaryotic & Multicellular
    • Cell walls made of cellulose
    • Autotrophic
  • Animalia
    • Eukaryotic & Multicellular
    • No cell walls
    • Internal heterotrophs
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