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Akm Saiful Islam. WFM 6311: Climate Change Risk Management. Lecture-11: International treaties, negotiations and Bangladesh position. Institute of Water and Flood Management (IWFM) Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology (BUET). March, 2013. Outlines. Responsibility UNFCCC

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Akm saiful islam

Akm Saiful Islam

WFM 6311: Climate Change Risk Management

Lecture-11: International treaties, negotiations and Bangladesh position

Institute of Water and Flood Management (IWFM)

Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology (BUET)

March, 2013



  • Responsibility


  • Kyoto Protocol (COP1 to COP7)

  • IPCC

  • The Bali Action Plan (COP 13)

  • The Copenhagen Accord (COP15)

  • The Cancun Agreements (COP16)

  • Durban Conference (COP 17)

  • Bangladesh Position

Who is responsible

Who is responsible ?

Emission of green house gases

Emission of Green house gases

  • Emission of Co2 Bangladesh < 0.2 ton/yr

Global emission

Global Emission

Unfcc and cop


The united nations framework convention on climate change unfccc

The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)

  • UNFCCC has establish in 1994 to set an overall framework for global efforts to tackle the challenge posed by climate change.

  • UNFCCC recognizes that the climate system is a shared resource whose stability can be affected by industrial and other emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases.

  • Currently, there are 195 Parties (194 States and 1 regional economic integration organization) to the Convention.

The united nations framework convention on climate change

The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

Governments are required to:

  • gather and share information on greenhouse gas emissions, national policies and best practices

  • launch national strategies for addressing greenhouse gas emissions and adapting to expected impacts, including the provision of financial and technological support to developing countries

  • cooperate in preparing for adaptation to the impacts of climate change.

Wfm 6311 climate change risk management


Since the UNFCCC entered into force in 1995, the Conference of the Parties (COP) to the UNFCCC have been meeting annually to assess progress in dealing with climate change.

The COP adopts decisions and resolutions, published in reports of the COP.  Successive decisions taken by the COP make up a detailed set of rules for practical and effective implementation of the Convention.

Kyoto protocol

Kyoto Protocol

What is the kyoto protocol

What is the Kyoto Protocol?

  • The Kyoto Protocol is an agreement made under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Countries that ratify this protocol commit to reduce their emissions of carbon dioxide and five other greenhouse gases, or engage in emissions trading if they maintain or increase emissions of these gases to a 5.37% less than 1999.

A brief history of the events leading to the kyoto protocol

COP 1, in March of 1995, saw the passage of the Berlin Mandate, which called for new negotiations on more detailed commitments for industrialized countries under the UNFCCC.

On December 11, 1997 the Kyoto Protocol was officially adopted at COP 3 in Kyoto Japan.

In 1998 a new round of negotiations on Kyoto were launched at COP 4 in Buenos Aires.

A Brief History of the Events Leading to the Kyoto Protocol

History cont

Negotiations on the rules of implementing the Kyoto Protocol resumed during COP 6 in Bonn, Germany, July 2001.

Building on the Bonn Agreements negotiators at COP 7 (Marrakech, Morocco, October 2001) adopted a comprehensive package of decisions known as the Marrakech Accords.

History (cont.)

The kyoto protocol

The Kyoto Protocol

The Kyoto Protocol is an international agreement linked to the UNFCCC.

  • It sets binding targets for 37 industrialised countries and the European Union for reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

  • Using the emissions inventory for the year 1990 as a basis, reductions amounting to an average of 5% over the five-year period 2008-2012 is expected.

  • The major difference between the Protocol and the UNFCCC is that while the UNFCCC encourages industrialised countries to stabilise greenhouse gas emissions (GHG’s), the Protocol commits them to do so.

The kyoto protocol1

The Kyoto Protocol

  • The Kyoto Protocol was adopted in Kyoto, Japan, on 11 December 1997 and entered into force on 16 February 2005.

  • The commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol ends in 2012

  • A new international framework needs to have been negotiated and ratified that can deliver the stringent emission reductions as recommended by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).

  • The basis for this is expected to happen in COP 17- CMP 7.

Kyoto protocol 4 main elements

Kyoto Protocol: 4 Main Elements

  • The Kyoto Protocol and its rulebook, set out in the Marrakech Accords, consist of five main elements:

  • 1. Commitments

    A. Specific emissions commitments

    B. General commitments

  • 2. Implementation

    A. Domestic policies and measures

    B. Land use, land-use change and forestry sector

    C. Joint implementation

    D. Clean development mechanism

    E. Emissions trading

Commitments specific

Commitments: Specific

  • At the real heart of the Kyoto Protocol lies its set of legally-binding emissions targets for industrialized countries. These emissions targets amount to a total cut, among all Annex I Parties, of at least 5% from 1990 levels by 2008-2012.

Commitments specific1

Commitments: Specific

  • The collective 5% reduction is shared out so that each Annex I Party has its own individual emissions target.

  • However, all individual emissions targets must be achieved by the same commitment period of 2008-2012.

  • *All individual targets are listed in Annex B of the Protocol.

Kyoto protocol parties

ANNEX 1 Countries:

Developed countries

Non- ANNEX 1 Countries:

Non Developed countries


Kyoto protocol country targets

Country% of base

Australia 108

Austria 92

Belgium 92

Bulgaria 92

Canada 94

Croatia 92

Czech Republic 92

Denmark 92

Estonia 92

European Community 92

Finland 92

France 92

Germany 92

Greece 92

Hungary 94

Iceland 110

Country% of base

Italy 92

Japan 94

Lithuania 92

Netherlands 92

New Zealand 100

Norway 101

Poland 94

Portugal 92

Romania 92

Russian Federation 100

Spain 92

Sweden 92

Switzerland 92

Ukraine 100

United Kingdom 92

United States 93

Kyoto Protocol -Country Targets

Commitments specific2

Commitments: Specific

  • If a Party achieves more substantial cuts in its emissions than is required by its target it may carry over the difference to the next commitment period

  • In addition, Parties may offset their emissions by increasing the amount of greenhouse gases removed from the atmosphere by carbon sinks in the Land-Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry sector (LULUCF).

Flexibility mechanisms

Flexibility Mechanisms

  • The Kyoto Protocol defines three innovative “flexibility mechanisms” to lower the overall costs of achieving its emissions targets.

  • These mechanisms enable Parties to access cost-effective opportunities to reduce emissions or to remove carbon from the atmosphere in other countries.

  • While the cost of limiting emissions varies considerably from region to region, the benefit for the atmosphere is the same, wherever the action is taken.

  • Under this system, the amount to which an Annex I Party must reduce its emissions over the five year commitment period (“assigned amount”) is divided into units each equal to one ton of carbon dioxide equivalent.

Kyoto mechanisms are

Kyoto mechanisms are:

  • CDM: Clean Development Mechanism.- provides for Annex I Parties to implement projects that reduce emissions in non-Annex I Parties, or absorb carbon through afforestation or reforestation activities, in return for certified emission reductions (CERs, tCERs and lCERs) and assist the host Parties in achieving sustainable development and contributing to the ultimate objective of the Convention.

  • JI: Joint Implementation.- an Annex I Party may implement an emission-reducing project or a project that enhances removals by sinks in the territory of another Annex I Party (with a commitment inscribed in Annex B of the Kyoto Protocol) and count the resulting emission reduction units (ERUs) towards meeting its own Kyoto target.

The clean development mechanism cdm

The clean development mechanism (CDM)

  • Provides for Annex I Parties to implement project activities that reduce emissions in non-Annex I Parties, in return for certified emission reductions (CERs). 

  • The CERs generated by such project activities can be used by Annex I Parties to help meet their emissions targets under the Kyoto Protocol. 

  • Such project activities are to assist the developing country host Parties in achieving sustainable development and in contributing to the ultimate objective of the Convention.

U s response to the kyoto protocol

U.S. Response to the Kyoto Protocol

  • The U.S. is the world’s single-largest source of CO2 emissions, accounting for 36% in 1990.

  • As such, U.S. ratification would clearly push the Kyoto thermometer above the 55% threshold and thus, bring the Protocol into force.

  • However, in March of 2001 President George W. Bush steadfastly rejected the Kyoto Protocol citing the “fact” that, “[T]he Kyoto treaty would severely damage the United States’ economy…”6

Us state initiatives

US State Initiatives

  • As of January 18, 2007, eight Northeastern US states are involved in the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI) which is a state level emissions capping and trading program.

  • It is believed that the state-level program will indirectly apply pressure on the federal government by demonstrating that reductions can be achieved without being a signatory of the Kyoto Protocol.

  • Participating states: Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Delaware, Massachusetts.

  • The California Legislature reached an agreement to reduce the state's greenhouse-gas emissions, which rank at 12th-largest in the world, by 25 percent by the year 2020.

Wfm 6311 climate change risk management


The intergovernmental panel on climate change ipcc

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)

  • IPCC was established in 1988 by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO)

  • IPCC provides the world with a clear scientific view on the current state of knowledge in climate change and its potential environmental and socio-economic impacts.

  • As an intergovernmental body the IPCC is open to all member countries of the United Nations and WMO.

Cop copenhagen to durban

COP (Copenhagen to Durban)

Towards a new agreement in 2012

Towards a new agreementin 2012

  • Kyoto Protocol reaches its sell by date in 2012.

  • Processes have been taking place to replace it with a new binding agreement.

  • In 2007, The Bali Action Plan sought such an agreement.

  • COP 15 which took place in Copenhagen called for a new deal but could only come up with the Copenhagen Accord.

  • COP 16 which took place in Mexico in 2010 resulted in the CANCUN AGREEMENTS.

  • It is up to South Africa to ensure that a solid agreement is to happen in 2012.

The bali action plan 5 point plan

The Bali Action Plan (5 point plan)

  • The Bali Action Plan was agreed upon at COP 13 in December, in Bali, Indonesia.

  • It calls for the full, effective and sustained implementation of the UNFCCC through long-term cooperative action up to and beyond 2012 by addressing :

  • A shared vision for long-term cooperative action, including a long-term global goal for emission reductions.

  • Enhanced national/international action on mitigation of climate change.

  • Enhanced action on adaptation.

  • Enhanced action on technology development and transfer to support action on mitigation and adaptation.

  • Enhanced action on the provision of financial resources and investment to support action on mitigation and adaptation and technology cooperation.

The copenhagen accord

The Copenhagen Accord

  • The 15th session of the Conference of Parties (COP 15) to the UNFCCC took place in Denmark in the city of Copenhagen.

  • COP 15 noted the Copenhagen Accord at the final plenary on 18 December 2009.

  • Countries had to pledge their CO2 emission reductions.

  • The Accord is not legally binding and does not commit countries to agree to a binding successor to the Kyoto Protocol.

  • An assessment of the implementation of this Accord is to be completed by 2015.

The cancun agreements

The Cancun Agreements

  • COP 16 was held in Cancún, Mexico in 2010

  • Arising thereof the Cancun Agreements were adopted.

  • The Cancun Agreements are a set of significant decisions:

  • The international community agreed to address the long-term challenge of climate change collectively and comprehensively over time and to take concrete action now to speed up the global response.

  • The agreements represent key steps forward in capturing plans to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to help developing nations protect themselves from climate impacts and build their own sustainable futures.

Cop 17

COP 17

  • Conference of Parties (COP) refers to the States that have signed on to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).

  • The parties have been meeting annually in Conferences of the Parties (COP) to assess progress in dealing with climate change since 1995.

  • COP 17 is therefore the 17th Conference that will take place at the end of this year (2011).

  • The COP 17- CMP 7 will mark a critical moment in the ongoing international climate change negotiations.

  • CMP 7 means the seventh meeting of the Parties since the Kyoto Protocol was signed.

Cop 17 2011 united nations climate change conference

COP 17 : 2011 United Nations Climate Change Conference

  • The 2011 United Nations Climate Change Conference will be held in Durban, South Africa, from 28 November to 9 December 2011.

  • Officially it is referred to as the 17th session of the Conference of the Parties (COP 17) to the UNFCCC.

  • It is also the 7th session of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties (CMP 7) to the Kyoto Protocol.

  • In addition, the two permanent subsidiary bodies of the UNFCCC – the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA) and the Subsidiary Body for Implementation (SBI) – are likely to hold their 35th sessions.

The 11 th hour has arrived

The 11th Hour has arrived.

We cannot allow the Kyoto Protocol to die here.

Christina Figueres (Head :UNFCCC) maintains that it is important to resolve the future of the Kyoto Protocol which is fundamental and critical for at least two reasons:

1) It contains the key rules to quantify monitor the mitigation efforts of countries.

2) It also contains important market based mechanisms that allows those countries to reach their mitigation levels in a cost effective manner.

Towards a new agreement in 20121

Towards a new agreement in 2012:

Taking meaningful climate action is about seizing the opportunity –

  • to build international competitiveness,

  • new economic infrastructure, sectors and activity;

  • create prosperity and jobs;

  • transform our economy and society; reduce poverty;

  • improve health and quality of life for all.

Bangladesh position

Bangladesh Position

Mitigation bangladesh position

Mitigation: Bangladesh Position

  • Emphasizing a legally-binding mid term and long term emission reduction targets by Annex I Parties with 40% by 2020 and 85% by 2050 below 1990 levels.

  • Based on IPCC AR4, global emission reduction efforts must ensure at least 25-40% below 1990 levels by 2020 for Annex I and significantly below business as usual (BAU) emissions in 2020 for the non-Annex I countries as a group.

  • NAMA Registry should be web based and supported by developed countries

  • Registry should not become a prior requirement or bottleneck to access funding, including from the GCF.

Source of information: Dr. Monjurul Hannan, Deputy Sec., MoEF

Mitigation bangladesh position cont

Mitigation: Bangladesh Position cont…

Source of information: Dr. Monjurul Hannan, Deputy Sec., MoEF

Loopholes in LULUCF and market-based mechanisms that degrade reduction targets need to be excluded.

The global goals and limits must include emissions from international shipping and aviation

A legally binding agreement that is fair, effective, comprehensive and robust ensuring global environmental integrity

Durban should launch a clear roadmap with reasonable timeframe agreed by Parties towards reaching a legally binding agreement.

Adaptation bangladesh position

Adaptation: Bangladesh position

  • Adaptation Committee for Macro Management

  • Priority should be country driven

  • GCF or other financial entities will allocate resources for project implementation

  • Linkages with funding mechanism and technology

Source of information: Dr. Monjurul Hannan, Deputy Sec., MoEF

Adaptation bangladesh position1

Adaptation: Bangladesh position

  • Finalization of adaptation text in Durban and operationalization adaptation activities

  • Member from LDCs in Adaptation Committee

  • Adaptation Committee must be under COP, not under SBI

  • Balanced allocation for Adaptation and Mitigation

  • Ugent and immediate fund for NAPA, NAP and BCCSAP implementation

Source of information: Dr. Monjurul Hannan, Deputy Sec., MoEF

Awg kp bangladesh position

AWG-KP: Bangladesh position

Source of information: Dr. Monjurul Hannan, Deputy Sec., MoEF

Five year 2nd commitment period of KP after 2012

Strong political decision is critical

Finalization and adoption of legally binding agreement ASAP

No more flexible mechanism for parties those are not in favor of KP 2nd cp

Technology bangladesh position

Technology: Bangladesh position

  • Operationalization of CTC and Networks at Durban

  • Country driven priority for technology access and transfer

  • Technology access, transfer and capacity building must be supported

  • Emphasis on both adaptation and mitigation technology

  • Linkages of technology with finance

Source of information: Dr. Monjurul Hannan, Deputy Sec., MoEF

Finance bangladesh position

Finance: Bangladesh position

Source of information: Dr. Monjurul Hannan, Deputy Sec., MoEF

Transparency on Fast Start Fund with urgent and immediate fund release

Operationalization of GCF in Durban

A clear work plan on pledged of Annex I from post 2012 and up to 2020 for approval by COP 17

Direct access of fund by LDCs through national funding mechanism i.e. BCCTF and BCCRF

Balanced allocation for adaptation and mitigation

Urgent and immediate fund for NAPA and BCCSAP implementation

Thank you

Thank you

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