Kingdom fungi
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Kingdom fungi

Kingdom Fungi

This chapter describes the morphology, life cycles, and ecological importance of the kingdom Fungi. The divisions of fungi are established on the basis of variations in sexual reproduction. Lichens are symbiotic complexes of fungi and algae. Fungi play an important ecological role, both as decomposers and by their mychorrizal associations with plant roots. A flagellated protistan may have been the common ancestor to fungi and animals.


Introduction to the fungi

Introduction to the Fungi

  • Most fungi are multicellular eukaryotes.

  • They differ from other eukaryotes in their nutrition, structure,growth, and reproduction.

http://www.dazed.org/npa/npj/200206/fungi%20picback.jpg


Introduction to the fungi1

Introduction to the Fungi

  • Fungi are heterotrophs

  • They obtain nutrition through absorption, in which they take up small molecules from their surroundings.

  • Fungi secrete hydrolytic enzymes and digest food outside their bodies.

http://mercury.bio.uaf.edu/courses/biol105/lectures/Section4/4b4b.jpg


Introduction to the fungi2

Introduction to the Fungi

  • The bodies of fungi are composed of filaments called hyphae that are intertwined together to form a mycelium (the body).

  • Most fungi are multicellular and the hyphae are made up of cells with walls between them called septa.

  • The cell walls are made of chitin.

http://www.anselm.edu/homepage/jpitocch/genbios/31-01-FungalMycelia-L.jpg


Introduction to the fungi3

Introduction to the Fungi

  • Know Figure 31.2

http://www.anselm.edu/homepage/jpitocch/genbios/31-01-FungalMycelia-L.jpg


Introduction to the fungi4

Introduction to the Fungi

  • Fungi produce spores either sexually or asexually

  • They disperse spores in order to reproduce

  • The spores of most fungal species are haploid

http://www.kcom.edu/faculty/chamberlain/Website/Lects/fungi9.jpg


Sexual vs asexual fungi reproduction

Sexual vs Asexual Fungi Reproduction

http://bio1151.nicerweb.com/doc/class/bio1151/Locked/media/ch31/31_05FungiLifeCycle.jpg


Diversity of fungi

Diversity of Fungi

  • There are four phyla of fungi:

    • Chytridiomycota

    • Zygomycota

    • Ascomycota

    • Basidomycota

http://www.uccs.edu/~rmelamed/MicroFall2002/Chapter%209/Fungi.jpg


Diversity of fungi1

Diversity of Fungi

  • Division Chytridiomycota (chytrids)

    • Aquatic saprobes or parasites

    • Thought to be the most primitive of fungi

http://www.avocadosalad.org/jquest/bio/images/funchytrids.JPG


Diversity of fungi2

Diversity of Fungi

  • Division Zygomycota

    (zygote fungi)

    • Terrestrial

    • Some form mycorrhizae – mutualistic assocations with plant roots (Producing enzymes that encourage root growth)

    • Common specimen is bread mold (Rhizopus)

http://www.zo.utexas.edu/faculty/sjasper/images/31.6.jpg


Diversity of fungi3

Diversity of Fungi

  • Ascomycota

    (sac fungi)

    • Live in a variety of environments

    • Common forms include unicellular yeasts, cup fungi, morels, and lichens

http://www.ontariowildflower.com/images/fungi_orangepeel.jpg


Diversity of fungi4

Diversity of Fungi

  • Basidiomycota

    (club fungus)

    • Include mushrooms

    • Important decomposers of plant material

http://www.sirinet.net/~jgjohnso/clubfungi.jpg


Diversity of fungi5

Diversity of Fungi

  • Three other important fungi include:

    • Molds

    • Yeasts

    • Lichens

http://www.moldfighter.com/pictures/mold_large.jpg

http://www.ipb-halle.de/ipb/user/tfester/english/beer/ingreds/yeast2.jpg

http://peter.odryna.com/photolib/vacations/1998jun%20Yosemite/images/Lichen%20in%20tree.jpg


Diversity of fungi6

Diversity of Fungi

  • Molds

    • Rapidly growing fungi that reproduce asexually

    • Saprobes or parasites

    • Common form is penicillin, other forms are also used as antibiotics

http://www.eamlabs.com/penicillin.png


Diversity of fungi7

Diversity of Fungi

  • Yeasts

    • Unicellular fungi that live in moist habitats

    • Produce asexually by budding

    • Saccharomyces cerevisiae used in baking, brewing, and molecular genetic research

http://www.visualsunlimited.com/images/watermarked/171/171455.jpg


Diversity of fungi8

www.treedictionary.com/.../lichens-2.html

Diversity of Fungi

  • Lichens

    • Symbiotic associations of photosynthetic microorganisms (algae) embedded in a network of fungal hyphae

    • Hardy organisms that are pioneers on rock and soil surfaces

http://www.herbarium.usu.edu/fungi/FunFacts/LichenXS.jpg


Ecological impacts of fungi

Ecological Impacts of Fungi

  • Fungi are important decomposers that release organic nutrients, enabling them to cycle through the environment

  • Pathogenic fungi cause athlete’s foot, yeast infections, and lung infections

  • Some fungi are edible, such as commercially cultivated mushrooms as well as some wild mushrooms

http://www.nifg.org.uk/amanita_muscaria2.jpg


Phylogenetic relationships of fungi

Phylogenetic Relationships of Fungi

  • Flagellated stage found in the most ancient lineage of chytrids is indicative of a protist ancestor

  • Other fungal divisions lost their flagellated stages as they developed reproduction and dispersal methods for life on land

  • Comparisons of proteins and ribosomal RNA indicate that animals and fungi diverged from a common ancestor

http://www.sidwell.edu/us/science/vlb/class/fungi/fungiphylotree.jpg


Sexual vs asexual fungi reproduction1

Sexual vs Asexual Fungi Reproduction

http://bio1151.nicerweb.com/doc/class/bio1151/Locked/media/ch31/31_05FungiLifeCycle.jpg


Fungi lifecycle

Fungi Lifecycle

http://www.rbg.vic.gov.au/__data/page/1431/fungilife.gif


Label plasmogamy karyogamy and meiosis p 582

Label Plasmogamy, Karyogamy, and meiosis p. 582

http://fp.bio.utk.edu/botany/Botany_courses/botany110/StudyAids/Quizes/quiz152.gif


Label plasmogamy karyogamy and meiosis p 5821

Label Plasmogamy, Karyogamy, and meiosis p. 582

http://smccd.net/accounts/case/fungi/basidiolife.gif


Kingdom fungi

Ecological Impacts

of Fungi

Phylogenetic Relationships

of Fungi


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