Church History. John Oakes, PhD Apologetics Research Society. Why Study Church History?. Learn the Mistakes of History → Avoid them? Those who cannot learn from history are doomed to repeat it. Discover our own roots (Restoration Movement, Campus Ministry, ICOC)
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John Oakes, PhD
Apologetics Research Society
Gnosticism: The Gospel of Judas
“But you [ie. Judas] will exceed all of them. For you will sacrifice the man that clothes me.”
John Wyclif 1324-1384
Translated Vulgate into English Opposed indulgences, idols, priesthood The Pope is the antichrist Followers known as Lollards
Declared heretics 1401
John Huss 1374-1415 Bohemia
Influenced by Wyclif Bible the only authority Only God can forgive sin Burned at the stake Hussites virtually wiped out by the Inquisition Brethren and Moravian Churches
John Huss Burned at the stake, 1415
Martin Luther 1483-1546
95 Theses in Wittenburg 1517
Grace Through Faith Only
Book of James a “book of straw.”
Kept much of Catholic worship practices
Ulrich Zwingli (1484-1531)
More radical than Luther
Rejected almost all Catholic forms of worship. “Four bare walls and a sermon.”
Differed on the Lord’s Supper
Lord’s Supper and Baptism are “symbolic ceremonies.”
His influence led to the Anabaptists
Principle influence on John Calvin
Died as a soldier fighting a Catholic Swiss canons.
The Anabaptist Movement (1530’s and later)
The Radical Reformation
Menno Simmons 1496-1561
Martyrdom of Anabaptists
Restoration or Reformation?
We are “Christians simply”
“One thing I know, that whenever non-essentials are made terms of communion, it will never fail to have a tendency to disunite and scatter the church of Christ.”
The Cane Ridge Revival
The Last Will and Testament of the Springfield Presbytery
“Let Christian Unity be our Polar Star.”
“I do, so far as I see it consistent with the word of God.”
The Presbytery of Springfield, sitting at Cane Ridge, in the county of Bourbon, being, through a gracious Providence, in more than ordinary bodily health, growing in strength and size daily; and in perfect soundness and composure of mind; but knowing what it is appointed for all delegated bodies once to die: and considering that the life of every such body is very uncertain, do take, and ordain this our Last Will and Testament, in manner and following,….
And with that the Springfield Presbytery no longer existed and the Stone movement began.
Emigrated to Pennsylvania 1807
Suspended by Presbyterian Church
The Declaration and Address 1809
Principles for unity of Christians.
Joined Thomas from Scotland 1809
Believers only baptism 1812
Campbell/Walker Debate 1820
The Millennial Harbinger 1830
Bethany College 1840
First evangelist in the movement
“Restored the gospel” in 1827
The five step “plan” of salvation
Scott’s: faith, repentance, baptism, remission of sins, Holy Spirit
CoC today: hear, believe, repent, confess, be baptized
“Command, Example and Necessary Demonstrations.”
“Where the Bible speaks, we speak, where the Bible is silent, we are silent”
Sought Bible “facts.” Weak on principles. Tended toward legalism.
Were they a unity movement (a reformation) or a restoration movement?
Stone and Campbell favored reformation (example; the Christadelphians)
Walter Scott, Benjamin Franklin, Tolbert Fanning, David Lipscomb and others moved toward restoration. Sought “the perfect pattern.”
David Lipscomb (1831-1917)
“Father” of the Church of Christ
Founder of Lipscomb University
Editor of the Gospel Advocate 1866-1917
“Watchdog” for the brotherhood.
“Daniel Sommer was a militant who left a legacy of legalistic wrangling and divided congregations.”
Reviving the Ancient Faith (Hughes)
The Stone Campbell Movement (Garrett)
Into All Nations (Foster Stanback)
The Search for the Ancient Order (West)
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