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Chapter 6. Technology and Curriculum Integration. CHAPTER 6 OBJECTIVES. Define curriculum and explain curriculum standards and benchmarks Explain technology integration, or curriculum integration Describe the use of computers in computer labs versus classroom instruction

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Chapter 6 l.jpg

Chapter 6

Technology and Curriculum Integration


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CHAPTER 6 OBJECTIVES

  • Define curriculum and explain curriculum standards and benchmarks

  • Explain technology integration, or curriculum integration

  • Describe the use of computers in computer labs versus classroom instruction

  • Identify ways in which technology can positively influence learning


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CHAPTER 6 OBJECTIVES

  • Identify ways to plan for technology integration

  • Explain various planning tools and instructional models

  • Describe the steps of the ASSURE Model

  • Identify ways to get started using technology at a new school

  • Describe the use of learning centers


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WHAT IS CURRICULUM?

  • Education is all of the experiences that a learner has under the supervision and guidance of teachers

  • Curriculums include plans or written documents


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WHAT IS CURRICULUM?

  • Country or state agencies


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WHAT IS CURRICULUM?

  • Curriculum Standards and Benchmarks

    • Curriculum standard

      • Defines what a student is expected to know at certain stages of education

    • Benchmark

      • Specific, measurable learning objective


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WHAT IS TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION?

  • Combining of all technology parts, such as hardware and software, together with each subject-related area of curriculum to enhance learning

  • Establish connections between subject matter and the real world


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WHAT IS TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION?

  • Curriculum drives technology


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WHAT IS TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION?

  • Classroom Integration versus Computer Labs

    • Computer labs

      • A designated classroom filled with computers

      • Teachers schedule time to use the labs for many purposes


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WHAT IS TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION?

  • Classroom Integration versus Computer Labs

    • Point of instruction

      • Technology in the classroom at the teachers’ and students’ fingertips


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WHAT IS TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION?

  • Classroom Integration versus Computer Labs

    • Point of instruction

      • Teachable moments


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THE CLASSROOM IN ACTION

  • Introduction to Mr. Balado’s classroom

    • Instructional computer with access to the Web and connected to a large television set

    • Allows Mr. Balado to access vast amounts of information


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INTEGRATING TECHNOLOGY INTO THE CURRICULUM

  • Technology can motivate students and increase class attendance

  • Technology must be integrated into the curriculum

    • Identify goals

    • Develop innovative ways to teach a diverse population of learners with different learning styles


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Technology is a tool that creates valuable learning experiences for many different types of learners


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CHANGING INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES

  • Teachers are shifting from being the dispenser of knowledge to being the facilitator of learning

    • Students can accomplish learning with the teachers’ assistance

    • Learning is not just storage of knowledge, but includes problem solving


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BARRIERS TO TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION

  • Lack of teacher training

  • Lack of administration support

  • Limited time for teacher planning

  • Placement of computers in remote locations

  • Overcoming the barriers


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TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION AND THE LEARNING PROCESS

  • The Learning Process

    • Authentic learning

      • Instructional activities that demonstrate real-life connections by associating the concept being taught with a real-life activity or event


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TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION AND THE LEARNING PROCESS

  • The Learning Process

    • Active learning

      • Students become active in the learning process

    • Anchored instruction

      • Providing a knowledge base on which students can build


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TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION AND THE LEARNING PROCESS

  • The Learning Process

    • Problem-based instruction

      • Students use the background (anchor) information to solve complex problems

    • Discovery learning

      • Inquiry-based method for teaching and learning


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TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION AND THE LEARNING PROCESS

  • Technology and the Learning Process

    • Numerous technology tools to support many types of instruction and learning

      • Multimedia

        • Example - Body Works

        • Allows students to build cognitive scaffold

        • Encourages students to think in colors, sounds, and animations


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TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION AND THE LEARNING PROCESS

  • Technology and the Learning Process

    • Numerous technology tools to support many types of instruction and learning

      • The Web

        • Educational equalizer

        • Allows children to experience new educational opportunities

        • Interaction with others outside of the school


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TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION AND THE LEARNING PROCESS

  • Technology and the Learning Process

    • Numerous technology tools to support many types of instruction and learning

      • Cooperative learning

        • Students work in groups to achieve learning objectives

        • High order thinking skills


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STRATEGIES FOR INTEGRATING TECHNOLOGY INTO TEACHING

  • Best strategy is to put the technology in the hands of teachers

  • Provide consistent application of technology tools to support instructional curriculum area

  • Continuous planning


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THE ROLE OF THE SCHOOL DISTRICT

  • Technology plan

    • Outline of procedure for procuring equipment and software

    • Training

    • Plans often updated annually


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THE ROLE OF THE SCHOOL DISTRICT

Mentorship program

  • Teaming new teachers with experienced teachers


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PLANNING FOR TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION IN THE CLASSROOM

  • Decide on most appropriate technology to achieve desired learner outcomes

  • Preparing the classroom environment


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PLANNING FOR TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION IN THE CLASSROOM

  • One-Computer Classroom

    • Maximize effectiveness of one computer

    • Use large screen television for output

    • Projection screens

    • Used to introduce topics rather than specific skills


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PLANNING FOR TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION IN THE CLASSROOM

  • Two-Computer Classroom

    • Develop a strategy to manage both computers

    • Many questions determine strategy

      • Will the computers be configured the same?

      • Web connectivity?

      • How much time per student?

      • How will student evaluation be done?


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PLANNING FOR TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION IN THE CLASSROOM

  • More Than Two Computers

    • Arrange classroom into learning centers

    • Use planning criteria mentioned previously


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PLANNING FOR TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION IN THE CLASSROOM

  • Using a Computer Lab

    • Advantages

      • One computer per student

      • Hands-on

      • Tutorials

      • Remediation

      • Cooperative learning

      • Computer skill instruction

      • Internet research


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PLANNING FOR TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION IN THE CLASSROOM

  • Using A Wireless Mobile Lab

    • Portable cart with wireless notebook computers

    • Can be transported from one classroom to another


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PLANNING LESSONS WITH TECHNOLOGY

  • Must consider skill levels of students

    • Skill assessment survey


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PLANNING LESSONS WITH TECHNOLOGY

  • KWL Charts

    • Instructional planning chart to assist teachers in identifying curriculum objectives

      • What students Know

      • What students Want to know

      • What they will Learn


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INSTRUCTIONAL MODELS

  • A systematic guide for planning instruction or a lesson


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INSTRUCTIONAL MODELS

  • The ASSURE Model

    • Guide for planning and delivering instruction that integrates technologies and media into the teaching process


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INSTRUCTIONAL MODELS

  • The ASSURE Model

    • Analyze the learner

    • State your objectives or identify your objectives or purpose

    • Select media and materials


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INSTRUCTIONAL MODELS

  • The ASSURE Model

    • Utilizing Media and Materials

    • Require Learner Participation

    • Evaluate and Revise


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GETTING STARTED AT A NEW SCHOOL

  • Consider ways to utilize available technology

  • Become familiar with the technology

  • Ask questions


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GETTING STARTED AT A NEW SCHOOL

  • Information About Technology

    • Find out who else in the school uses technology

    • Determine if there is a technology committee

      • Teacher’s manual

    • Determine where to get support


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GETTING STARTED AT A NEW SCHOOL

  • Technology Training

    • Does the school offer professional development or inservice training

    • Talk to your principal, curriculum coordinator, or district instructional technology coordinator


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GETTING STARTED AT A NEW SCHOOL

  • Hardware

    • Determine how to obtain additional hardware or upgrades

    • Join the technology committee

    • Research grants


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GETTING STARTED AT A NEW SCHOOL

  • Software

    • Determine what type of software is available

    • Check the classroom to see what is already installed

    • Special education requirements

    • Procedure for obtaining additional software

    • Is a bid list available?


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GETTING STARTED AT A NEW SCHOOL

  • Other Technologies

    • Media specialist can provide access to other technologies

    • Find a list of materials in use throughout the district


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GETTING STARTED AT A NEW SCHOOL

  • Technology Supplies

    • Determine procedure for obtaining additional supplies and parts


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PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER

  • Creating an Integrated Learning Environment

    • Learning centers

      • Breaks classroom into many types of learning environments


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PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER

  • The Classroom Centers

    • Mr. Balado classroom

      • Seven learning centers

        • Discovery computer center

        • Web search center

        • Modeling center

        • Great explorers library center

        • Science center

        • Scanning center

        • Hyperstudio center


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PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER

  • The Results of Technology Integration

    • Mr. Balado’s results

      • Creative projects

      • Students were actively involved

      • Higher-level thinking

      • Improved self-esteem, self-confidence, and writing skills


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CHAPTER SUMMARY

  • Define curriculum and explain curriculum standards and benchmarks

  • Explain technology integration, or curriculum integration

  • Describe the use of computers in computer labs versus classroom instruction

  • Identify ways in which technology can positively influence learning


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CHAPTER SUMMARY

  • Identify ways to plan for technology integration

  • Explain various planning tools and instructional models

  • Describe the steps of the ASSURE Model

  • Identify ways to get started using technology at a new school

  • Describe the use of learning centers


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Chapter 6 Complete


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LEARNING THEORIESAND EDUCATIONALRESEARCH


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LEARNING THEORIES AND EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH

  • Learning

    • The process of gaining knowledge or skills acquired through instruction or study, or to modify behavior through exposure to a type of conditioning or form of gaining experience


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LEARNING THEORIES AND EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH

  • Theory

    • A scientific set of principles presented to clarify or explain a phenomenon

  • Learning Theories

    • Provide frameworks for interpreting the conditions and observations of teaching and learning and provide the bridge between education and research


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CONSTRUCTIVISM

  • Learn by doing

  • Based on a type of learning where the learner forms or constructs much of what they learn or comprehend


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CONSTRUCTIVISM

  • Jerome Bruner

    • Learning is an active process in which the learner constructs new ideas or concepts based on their current or past knowledge


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CONSTRUCTIVISM

  • Jerome Bruner

    • Emphasizes an integrated curriculum where students learn a subject in various ways

    • Cognition

      • An individual progresses through different intellectual stages


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CONSTRUCTIVISM

  • Jerome Bruner

    • Learning should be discovery


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CONSTRUCTIVISM

  • Jerome Bruner

    • Socratic method

      • Students are engaged in discussion

    • Spiral curriculum

      • Students continually build upon what they already have learned


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CONSTRUCTIVISM

  • Jean Piaget

    • Influenced the constructivist movement

    • Developed the cognitive learning theory

    • Defined four cognitive stages


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CONSTRUCTIVISM

  • Jean Piaget

    • Four cognitive stages

      • Sensorimotor

      • Preoperational

      • Concrete operational

      • Formal operations

    • Schema

    • Assimilation

    • Accommodation


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CONSTRUCTIVISM

  • Lev Vygotsky

    • Russian psychologist interested in children’s cognitive development


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CONSTRUCTIVISM

  • Lev Vygotsky

    • Social constructivist theory

      • Learning is significantly influenced by social development

    • Zone of proximal development

      • Difference between the problem solving ability that a child has learned and the potential they could achieve from collaboration with a more advanced peer or expert


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CONSTRUCTIVISM

  • Lev Vygotsky

    • Collaborative learning

    • Scaffolding

    • Schemata

    • Anchored instruction

      • anchor


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CONSTRUCTIVISM

  • John Dewey

    • Educational psychologist, philosopher, and political activist

    • Progressive Education

    • Pragmatism


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BEHAVIORISM

  • Learning as it relates to behavior

  • Teachers cannot communicate information well if they cannot control student behavior

  • Positive and negative rewards


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BEHAVIORISM

  • Ivan Pavlov

    • Famous for behavioral experiments with dogs

    • Class conditioning


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BEHAVIORISM

  • B.F. Skinner

    • Operant conditioning

      • Learning is controlled and results in shaping behavior through the reinforcement of stimulus response patterns

    • Reinforcement


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BEHAVIORISM

  • Robert Gagne

    • Psychologist and educator

    • Three principles for successful instruction

      • Providing instruction on the set of component tasks that build toward a final task

      • Ensuring that each component task is mastered

      • Sequencing the component tasks to ensure optimal transfer to the final task


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BEHAVIORISM

  • Robert Gagne

    • Five categories of learning


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BEHAVIORISM

  • Robert Gagne

    • Nine events of instruction

      • Gain attention of the learners

      • Inform learners of the objective

      • Stimulate recall of prior learning

      • Present the stimulus or lesson

      • Provide learning guidance and instruction

      • Elicit performance

      • Provide feedback

      • Assess performance

      • Enhance retention and transfer


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OTHER EDUCATIONAL THEORISTS

  • Howard Gardner

    • Intelligence is the ability to gain knowledge, apply knowledge, manipulate one’s environment, and think abstractly

    • Theory of Multiple Intelligences


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OTHER EDUCATIONAL THEORISTS

  • Howard Gardner

    • Theory of Multiple Intelligences

      • Linguistic – Verbal

      • Logical – Mathematical

      • Spatial – Visual

      • Body – Kinesthetic

      • Musical

      • Interpersonal

      • Intrapersonal

      • Naturalist


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OTHER EDUCATIONAL THEORISTS

  • Benjamin Bloom

    • Classified learning into three domains

      • Cognitive domain

      • Affective domain

      • Psychomotor domain


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OTHER EDUCATIONAL THEORISTS

  • Benjamin Bloom

    • Bloom’s Taxonomy

      • Knowledge

      • Comprehension

      • Application

      • Analysis

      • Synthesis

      • Evaluation

    • Mastery learning


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THE CLASSROOM IN ACTION

  • Students in Mrs. Gautier’s class have difficulty remembering a spelling rule

  • Mrs. Gautier drew a ladder on the board with the six thinking levels (Bloom’s Taxonomy)

  • Students on Knowledge level


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THE CLASSROOM IN ACTION

  • Students cannot move up the ladder until they master the current level

  • Students work in groups to help each other remember the rule

  • After a few minutes, all students remember the rule


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THE CLASSROOM IN ACTION

  • Mrs. Gautier created a large thinking ladder for the center of the classroom as a visual cue

  • Mrs. Gautier created a PowerPoint presentation illustrating how students move up the thinking ladder

  • “Think Time”


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THE CLASSROOM IN ACTION

  • Each student develops three questions based on a reading selection

  • Each question comes from a different thinking level

  • Students must be able to think on a level before writing a question on that level


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THE CLASSROOM IN ACTION

  • Mrs. Gautier works her thinking ladder into every subject

  • The introduction of Bloom’s Taxonomy produced a real excitement in Mrs. Gautier’s class as students moved up the ladder


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