Analog data acquisition
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(Analog) Data Acquisition. D. Gordon E. Robertson, PhD, FCSB. Issues. What type of signal? (AC or DC) How many signals (channels) will be needed? Characteristics of signal (range, frequency) How does the A/D converter record the data?

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(Analog) Data Acquisition

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Analog data acquisition

(Analog) DataAcquisition

D. Gordon E. Robertson, PhD, FCSB


Issues

Issues

  • What type of signal? (AC or DC)

  • How many signals (channels) will be needed?

  • Characteristics of signal (range, frequency)

  • How does the A/D converter record the data?

  • Is signal conditioning necessary? (amplification, filtering)

  • How will the data be saved for use by other software?


What kind of signal

What Kind of Signal?

  • Use AC-coupling to remove biases from AC signals such as EMGs, EEGs or ECGs.

  • Use DC-coupling for all other signals

  • Piezoelectric signals, such as from accelerometers or force transducers, may require recording of bias levels for zeroing

EMGs are AC

Forces are DC


How many channels

How Many Channels?

NI 32-channel

cDAQ A/D

  • A/D converters sample multiple signals one channel at a time.

  • Typically 4, 8, 16, 32 or 64 channels are possible

  • Note, the more channels that are sampled the lower the maximum sampling rate

  • A/D converters have maximum rates (e.g., 100 kHz) that must be divided among the number of sampled channels

  • Most systems sample all channels at the same rate. Some allow different rates for each channel.

    • 1 Kistler force platform: 8 channels

    • 1 AMTI force platform: 6 channels

    • 1 3D head accelerometers: 9 channels

    • 1 joint elgon: 1–3 channels

AMTI force

platform

Biometrics

2-channel

electrogoniometer


Characteristics of signal

Characteristics of Signal

  • Voltage range:

    • 0 to +5 V, 0 to +10 V

    • +/–1.5 V, +/–5 V, +/–10 V

  • What is the signal’s frequency spectrum?

    • forces: DC to 10 Hz

    • audio: 20 Hz to 20 kHz

    • EMG: 20 to 500 Hz


What signal conditioning is done

What Signal Conditioning is Done?

  • Amplification or attenuation to fit dynamic range of A/D converter

    • 1000x for EMGs

    • force transducers 1/100, 1/10, 1/1

  • Analog filtering

    • band-pass filtering of EMGs

Honeywell bridge amp

Bortec 8-channel EMG,

gains from 1x to 15000x


How does the a d converter record the data

How does the A/D converter Record the Data?

  • number of data bits:

    • 8 bits gives 0 to 255

    • 12 bits gives 0 to 4095

    • 16 bits gives 0 to 65 536

    • 24 bits gives 0 to over 1 million

  • are the data stored in ones or twos complement or without sign bit

  • bit formats: Intel, DEC, Sun

  • software must be able to convert the integer data to floating point in volts or other measurement unit


Relationship between integer and real data

8 bit 12 bit 16 bit+/–12 bit input V actual

255

128

0

4095

2048

0

216–1

215

0

2047

0

–2048

+10 V

0 V

–10 V

+5000 N

0 N

–5000 N

Relationship between Integer and Real Data

  • resolution = voltage range/bits

  • for 12 bit, +/–10 V; resolution = 20/4096 = 0.0048828 V/bit


How will the data be saved

How Will the Data be Saved?

  • integer format is the most compact and fastest

  • integer format must be converted to floating point by other software (e.g., BioProc2/3, MATLAB, commercial software)

  • real format (machine language) requires less processing but more memory

  • ASCII requires greatest amount of memory but is easiest to read by other software (Excel, QuattroPro, SPSS) and may reduce accuracy due to rounding

  • public format: .C3D, .WAV, .EDF, .WK1

  • spreadsheet: .WK1, .XLS, .QPW


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