The speed of sound
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The Speed of Sound. How can you determine how far a thunder storm is away from you?. Speed of Sound. Much slower than the speed of light (values for air) Light – 300,000,000 m/s Sound – 332 m/s. Calculating Speed of Sound. Assuming no pressure change from atmospheric, V = 332 + 0.59T

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The Speed of Sound

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The speed of sound

The Speed of Sound


The speed of sound

  • How can you determine how far a thunder storm is away from you?


Speed of sound

Speed of Sound

  • Much slower than the speed of light (values for air)

    • Light – 300,000,000 m/s

    • Sound – 332 m/s


Calculating speed of sound

Calculating Speed of Sound

  • Assuming no pressure change from atmospheric,

    V = 332 + 0.59T

  • The speed of sound in air at 0C is 332m/s, the speed increases by 0.59m/s for every degree celsius raised


Practice question

Practice Question

  • What is the speed of sound in this room?


Changing the medium

Changing the Medium

  • Sound can travel through solid, liquid or gas

  • Speed of sound depends on three things:

  • Density of particles

  • Closer particles are together – faster vibration can travel

  • Gas – slow, solid – fast

  • Sound travels faster on a humid day


The speed of sound

  • Temperature of Particles

  • Faster the particles move, the quicker the vibration can be transferred

  • Warm – Fast, Cold – slow

  • Mass of the Particles

  • Heavier the particles, the slower the vibration travels


Questions

Questions:

  • Calculate the speed of sound if the temperature is: a) 1C b) 30C c) -10 C

  • If the frequency of a radio wave is 102.1Mhz and the temperature of the air outside is 15C, what is the wavelength of the radio wave?

  • A student is located 100m away from the school’s bell. If the bell rings, how long will it take the sound to reach the student’s ear if the temperature outside is -15 C?

  • A swimmer is under the water while their friend is on the shore. If they are both the same distance away from a boat that is approaching, who will hear the boat first?

  • Will sound travel faster at sea level or at the top of a mountain? The equator or the north pole? Explain.


Reflection of sound

Reflection of Sound

  • Echoes – sound that reflects off a barrier and returns to the source

  • Only use the following formula for echoes:

    v = 2d/t

    V – speed of sound

    d – distance from source to reflective barrier

    t – time for sound to return


The speed of sound

  • Sonar

    • Uses sound to detect things underwater

    • Process called echolocation – by analyzing echoes (reflected sound) we can detect objects


The speed of sound

  • Echolocation

    • Bats and dolphins use echolocation to find prey and locate things around themselves

    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gZxLUNHEmPw


Homework

Homework

  • How long would an echo take to return from the Titanic if it is 4.0km below the surface of the Atlantic? The speed of sound in sea water is 1531m/s.

  • A ship is sailing on a foggy night. The captain is worried about ice bergs but has no radar. The captain sounds the ships horm and hears the echo 2.4s later. If the air temperature is -10C, how far away is the ice berg.

  • Research and explain how bats use echolocation to determine the location of their prey.


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