Chapter 11 fossil fuels
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Chapter 11 Fossil Fuels. Overview of Chapter 11. Energy Sources and Consumption How Fossil Fuels are Formed Coal Coal Reserves and Mining Environmental Impacts Oil and Natural Gas Exploration for Reserves of Oil and Natural Gas Environmental Impacts Arctic National Wildlife Refuge

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Chapter 11 fossil fuels

Chapter 11Fossil Fuels

Overview of chapter 11
Overview of Chapter 11

  • Energy Sources and Consumption

  • How Fossil Fuels are Formed

  • Coal

    • Coal Reserves and Mining

    • Environmental Impacts

  • Oil and Natural Gas

    • Exploration for Reserves of Oil and Natural Gas

    • Environmental Impacts

    • Arctic National Wildlife Refuge

  • Synfuels

  • US Energy Strategy

Energy sources and consumption
Energy Sources and Consumption

  • Energy sources used to be local

  • Now they are worldwide

    • Fossil fuels

    • Nuclear energy

    • Electricity

  • Energy consumption is different between developing and developed nations

    • 20% of world’s population use 60% of the world’s energy sources

Fossil fuels
Fossil Fuels developing countries

  • Combustible deposits in the Earth’s crust

    • Composed of the remnants (fossils) of prehistoric organisms that existed millions of years ago

    • Includes coal, oil (petroleum) and natural gas

  • Non-renewable resource

    • Fossil fuels are created too slowly to replace the reserves we use

How are fossil fuels formed
How Are Fossil Fuels Formed? developing countries

  • 300 million years ago

    • Climate was mild

    • Vast swamps covered much of the land

    • Dead plant material decayed slowly in the swamp environment

How are fossil fuels formed1
How Are Fossil Fuels Formed developing countries

  • Over time, layers of sediment accumulated over the dead plant material

  • Coal

    • Heat, pressure and time turned the plant material into carbon-rich rock (coal)

  • Oil

    • Sediment deposited over microscopic plants

    • Heat pressure and time turned them into hydrocarbons (oil)

  • Natural Gas

    • Formed the same way as oil, but at temperatures higher than 100 °C

Coal developing countries

  • Occurs in different grades

    • Based on variations in heat and pressure during burial

  • Lignite

  • Subbitumimous

  • Bituminous

  • Anthracite

  • Most, if not all, coal deposits have been identified

    • Primarily in northern hemisphere

Coal developing countries

  • US has 25% of world’s coal supplies

  • Known coal deposits could last 200 years

    • At present rate of consumption

2 types of coal mining
2 Types of Coal Mining developing countries

  • Surface mining (right)

    • Chosen if coal is within 30m of surface

    • mineral and energy resources are extracted near Earth’s surface by first removing the soil, subsoil, and overlying rock strata

  • Subsurface mining

    • Extraction of mineral and energy resources from deep underground deposits

Environmental impacts of mining coal
Environmental Impacts of Mining Coal developing countries

  • Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act (1977)

    • Requires filling (reclaiming) of surface mines after mining

      • Expensive!

    • Reduces Acid Mine Drainage

    • Requires permits and inspections of active coal mining sights

    • Prohibits coal mining in sensitive areas

  • Mountaintop Removal

    • Fills valleys and streams with debris

Environmental impacts of burning coal
Environmental Impacts of Burning Coal developing countries

  • Releases large quantities of CO2 into atmosphere

    • Greenhouse gas

  • Releases other pollutants into atmosphere

    • Mercury

    • Sulfur oxides

    • Nitrogen oxides

  • Can cause acid precipitation

Making coal cleaner
Making Coal Cleaner developing countries

  • Scrubbers

  • Fluidized Bed Combustion (below)

Oil and natural gas
Oil and Natural Gas developing countries

  • Oil and gas provide 60% of world’s energy

    • They provide 63% of US’s energy

Petroleum refining
Petroleum Refining developing countries

  • Numerous hydrocarbons present in crude oil (petroleum) are separated

    • Based on boiling point

  • Natural gas contains far fewer hydrocarbons than crude oil

    • Methane, ethane, propane and butane

Oil and natural gas exploration
Oil and Natural Gas Exploration developing countries

  • Oil and natural gas migrate upwards until they hit impermeable rock

  • Usually located in structural traps

Oil reserves
Oil Reserves developing countries

  • Uneven distribution globally

  • More than half is located in the Middle East

Natural gas reserves
Natural Gas Reserves developing countries

  • Uneven distribution globally

  • More than half is located in Russia and Iran

How long will supplies last
How long will Supplies Last? developing countries

  • Difficult to determine and estimates vary

  • Depends on:

  • How many more deposits will be located

  • What technology might be available extract deeper resources

  • Changes in global consumption rates

  • Experts indicate there may be shortages in 21st century

  • Environmental impacts of oil and natural gas
    Environmental Impacts of Oil and Natural Gas developing countries

    • Combustion

      • Increase carbon dioxide and pollutant emissions

      • Natural gas is far cleaner burning than oil

    • Production

      • Disturbance to land and habitat

    • Transport

      • Spills- especially in aquatic systems

      • Ex: Alaskan Oil Spill (1989)

    1989 alaskan oil spill
    1989 Alaskan Oil Spill developing countries

    1989 alaskan oil spill1
    1989 Alaskan Oil Spill developing countries

    • Exxon Valdez hit a reef and spilled 260,000 barrels of crude oil into sound

    • Largest oil spill in US history

    • Led to Oil Pollution Act of 1990

    Synfuel and other fossil fuel resources
    Synfuel and Other Fossil Fuel Resources developing countries

    • Synfuel

      • A liquid or gaseous fuel that is synthesized from coal and other naturally occurring sources

      • Used in place of oil or natural gas

    • Include:

      • Tar sands

      • Oil shales

      • Gas hydrates

      • Liquefied coal

      • Coal gas (right)

    Us energy strategy
    US Energy Strategy developing countries

    • Objective 1: Increase Energy Efficiency and Conservation

      • Requires many unpopular decisions

      • Examples

        • Decrease speed limit to conserve fuel

        • Eliminate government subsidies

    • Objective 2: Secure Future Fossil Fuel Energy Supplies

      • 2 oppositions: environmental and economic

    Us energy strategy1
    US Energy Strategy developing countries

    • Objective 3: Develop Alternative Energy Sources

      • Who should pay for this? Gas taxes?

    • Objective 4: Meet the First Three Objectives Without Further Damage to the Environment

    National energy policy 2005
    National Energy Policy (2005) developing countries