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Commodity Flow and Freight Transportation - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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CE 350 Introduction to Transportation Planning. TPH Chapter 3 Commodity Flows and Freight Transportation. Have an Understanding. To see how global commodity flow impacts transportation planning at the MPO level. Lecture Points. Statistics are now available for commodity movements

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Ce 350 introduction to transportation planning

CE 350Introduction to Transportation Planning

TPH Chapter 3

Commodity Flows


Freight Transportation

Have an understanding
Have an Understanding

To see how global commodity flow impacts transportation planning at the MPO level.

Lecture points
Lecture Points

  • Statistics are now available for commodity movements

  • Visualize commodity flows/freight transportation from Global National & State MPOs

  • How data sources are utilized by DOTs and MPOs

Changes since 1992

You know this!

Changes Since 1992

  • ISTEA created the Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS)

  • The Interstate Commerce Commission was eliminated (had been in place for 100 yrs.)

  • Functions transferred to motor carrier financial data collection program of BTS

Freight within the urban system
Freight Within the Urban System

  • “Just-in-time” delivery

  • Growing air freight movements

  • Supply chains that extend around the globe

  • Cannot just count trucks in the traffic flow

  • We need to understand freight movement

  • About 1/2 of urban transportation costs are related to freight

We must under-stand this!

Current status of statistical programs

Current Status of Statistical Programs

Census bureau surveys
Census Bureau Surveys

  • Commodity Flow Survey (CFS)

    • 1993 and 1997

  • Vehicle Inventory and Use Survey (VIUS)

    • 1997

    • Truck trip table input for regional modeling

  • BTS is developing a Truck Trip Estimation Procedure (TTEP)(uses data from the 1997 survey)

1993 cfs conducted by bts
1993 CFS Conducted by BTS

  • Provides information on

    • value

    • weight

    • mode

    • distance shipped

  • Shipped by

    • Manufacturing

    • mining

    • Wholesale trade

    • retail and services




  • Data source advantage of ‘93 CFS

    • Covers local freight & intercity shipments

    • Identifies parcel post and courier as separate mode of transportation

    • Includes freight movement between coastal ports

    • First time freight movement by intermodal combination of carriers was estimated

  • New data was collected

    • Container shipments

    • Hazardous materials

    • Which commodities were exports


Management systems and freight advisory councils
Management Systems AndFreight Advisory Councils

  • ISTEA mandated 6 management systems

    • Now are voluntary

  • Intermodal Management Systems (IMS)

  • Freight Advisory Councils were formed

Commodity flows freight transportation
Commodity Flows & Freight Transportation


National and State




Banana facts
Banana Facts

  • Bananas are Americas # 1 fruit

  • The average American consumes 28 pounds annually

  • Over 96% of our households buy then at least once a month

  • They are not grown commercially in the continental US but in Latin and South America

  • Bananas are harvested every day of the year and are available to us year around

Shipping bananas
Shipping Bananas

  • The fruit is packed in 40-pound corrugated boxes

  • They are loaded into special refrigerated truckload-sized containers and driven to a sea port

  • Bananas are loaded on ships within 24 to 48 hours after being cut form the plant

  • They are shipped at a carefully maintained temperature of 58º

  • Before shipping to retail outlets, they are ripened in temperature and humidity controlled rooms.

The united states and global freight transportation

The United StatesandGlobal Freight Transportation

Factors affecting international freight flows
Factors Affecting International Freight Flows

  • National and regional economies are dynamic

  • Business production and distribution has changed

  • Regional and global trade agreements

  • Transportation infrastructure allows more choice in siting new facilities

Waterborne freight
Waterborne Freight

  • Between 1970 and 1995

    • International waterborne freight nearly doubled

    • Domestic waterborne freight + 15%

  • Imports and exports increased through coastal ports, but

  • Declined for Great Lakes ports

Air freight
Air Freight

  • Imports and exports shipped by air has grown

    • 1970 = 11% of all international trade value

    • 1994 = 25%

  • Air is still a small potion of the weight shipped

Surface freight
Surface Freight


  • Canada and Mexico are largest trading partners

  • Detroit, Buffalo and Port Huron are gateway ports with Canada

  • Laredo is dominant gateway port with Mexico

  • Our East-West highway and rail orientation links Pacific coast with Atlantic and Gulf coast




Will policy change freight patterns
Will Policy Change Freight Patterns?

  • 1993 North American Free Trade Agreement

    • With Canada and Mexico

  • 1995 World Trade Organization (WTO)Here are two that have!!

Commodity movement in the us
Commodity Movement in the US U.S. Commodity Flows

  • Measured by the 1993 CFS

  • Major categories of freight shipment

    • Raw materials

    • Farm and food products

    • Manufactured, industrial and consumer products

    • Household and business moving

    • Municipal solid waste and other waste materials

Intrastate and interstate freight movement
Intrastate and Interstate U.S. Commodity FlowsFreight Movement

Truck shipments nationally
Truck Shipments Nationally U.S. Commodity Flows

Iowa truck shipments 1993 millions
Iowa Truck Shipments – 1993 U.S. Commodity FlowsMillions $

Iowa truck shipments 1993 millions ton miles
Iowa Truck Shipments – 1993 U.S. Commodity FlowsMillions - Ton Miles

Shipments by mode
Shipments by Mode U.S. Commodity Flows

Freight transportation at the metropolitan level

Freight Transportation at the U.S. Commodity FlowsMetropolitan Level

Sources of freight data
Sources of Freight Data U.S. Commodity Flows

  • FHWA survey of MPOs

  • NCHRP 8-30 surveyed DOTs and MPOs

  • Conclusion

    • Most state and MPO planners have little experience in freight forecasting

  • Product developed

    • “A Freight Data Handbook for States and MPOs”

Tmip freight track projects
TMIP Freight Track Projects U.S. Commodity Flows

  • Respond to requirements of ISTEA

  • Program links transportation to

    • air quality

    • energy

    • economic growth

    • land use

    • overall quality of life

Truck trip estimation procedure ttep
Truck Trip Estimation Procedure (TTEP) U.S. Commodity Flows

  • It is a technique to extract data from the census’ Vehicle Inventory and Use Survey

  • Allows calculation of averages for planning purposes

  • TEA 21 provided funds to develop software usable by MPOs

    • Provides for a common output from each region of the country

Data bases studies for mpo s

Data Bases & Studies for MPO’s U.S. Commodity Flows

Census and bts data bases plus other data sources
Census and BTS Data Bases U.S. Commodity FlowsPlus Other Data Sources

  • BTS’ Directory of Transportation Data Sources, 1996

  • U.S. DOTs and BTS’ National Transportation Library

  • Census and BTS’ Commodity Flow Survey: 1993

  • FRA’s and BTS’ Tail Waybill Data: 1988 - 1992

  • BTS’ and ORNL’s National Transportation Atlas Databases (NTAD), 1997

  • Census, County Business Patterns

  • Census’ and BTS’s Vehicle Inventory and Use Survey

  • FHWA Motor Carrier Management Information System U.S. Commodity Flows

  • BTS’ State Freight Profiles

    • Transportation facilities

    • Commodity movements

    • Exports to imports

    • Rail shipments

    • Waterborne commerce

    • Transportation establishments

    • Truck registration and vehicle miles traveled

    • Motor carrier statistics

    • Fatal truck crashes

    • Rail accidents

    • Hazardous materials incidents

Applications of cfs in state and mpo planning

Applications of CFS in U.S. Commodity FlowsState and MPO Planning

4 projects that use cfs data in state and mpo planning
4 Projects That Use CFS Data in State and MPO Planning U.S. Commodity Flows

  • Biddle, Saurusaitis, Matherly and Perincherry, 1997

    • Develop a model that is both spatially and temporally transferable that will translate nationally available yearly commodity flows into daily truck trips

  • Black, 1997 and 1998

    • Model estimates the production and attraction of 19 commodity groups and two types of mail

    • Looks primarily at the highway and rail sectors

  • Earlbam, 1998 U.S. Commodity Flows

    • Provides overview of commodity flow in New York State

    • Combines data from

      • 1993 Commodity Flow Survey

      • 1993 U.S. Waterway Data

      • Trans-border Surface Freight Transportation Data

  • Kirshnan and Hancock, 1998

    • Methodology for calculating truck flows on highways

    • Combines

      • 1993 Commodity Flow Survey

      • Highway Performance Monitoring System

Lecture points1
Lecture Points U.S. Commodity Flows

  • Statistics are now available for commodity movements

  • Visualize commodity flows/freight transportation from Global National & State MPOs

  • How data sources are utilized by DOTs and MPOs

Ce 350 introduction to transportation planning1

CE 350 U.S. Commodity FlowsIntroduction to Transportation Planning

TPH Chapter 3

Commodity Flows


Freight Transportation