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CE 350 Introduction to Transportation Planning. TPH Chapter 3 Commodity Flows and Freight Transportation. Have an Understanding. To see how global commodity flow impacts transportation planning at the MPO level. Lecture Points. Statistics are now available for commodity movements

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ce 350 introduction to transportation planning

CE 350Introduction to Transportation Planning

TPH Chapter 3

Commodity Flows


Freight Transportation

have an understanding
Have an Understanding

To see how global commodity flow impacts transportation planning at the MPO level.

lecture points
Lecture Points
  • Statistics are now available for commodity movements
  • Visualize commodity flows/freight transportation from Global National & State MPOs
  • How data sources are utilized by DOTs and MPOs
changes since 1992

You know this!

Changes Since 1992
  • ISTEA created the Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS)
  • The Interstate Commerce Commission was eliminated (had been in place for 100 yrs.)
  • Functions transferred to motor carrier financial data collection program of BTS
freight within the urban system
Freight Within the Urban System
  • “Just-in-time” delivery
  • Growing air freight movements
  • Supply chains that extend around the globe
  • Cannot just count trucks in the traffic flow
  • We need to understand freight movement
  • About 1/2 of urban transportation costs are related to freight

We must under-stand this!

census bureau surveys
Census Bureau Surveys
  • Commodity Flow Survey (CFS)
    • 1993 and 1997
  • Vehicle Inventory and Use Survey (VIUS)
    • 1997
    • Truck trip table input for regional modeling
  • BTS is developing a Truck Trip Estimation Procedure (TTEP)(uses data from the 1997 survey)
1993 cfs conducted by bts
1993 CFS Conducted by BTS
  • Provides information on
    • value
    • weight
    • mode
    • distance shipped
  • Shipped by
    • Manufacturing
    • mining
    • Wholesale trade
    • retail and services




  • Data source advantage of ‘93 CFS
    • Covers local freight & intercity shipments
    • Identifies parcel post and courier as separate mode of transportation
    • Includes freight movement between coastal ports
    • First time freight movement by intermodal combination of carriers was estimated
  • New data was collected
    • Container shipments
    • Hazardous materials
    • Which commodities were exports


management systems and freight advisory councils
Management Systems AndFreight Advisory Councils
  • ISTEA mandated 6 management systems
    • Now are voluntary
  • Intermodal Management Systems (IMS)
  • Freight Advisory Councils were formed
commodity flows freight transportation
Commodity Flows & Freight Transportation


National and State





banana facts
Banana Facts
  • Bananas are Americas # 1 fruit
  • The average American consumes 28 pounds annually
  • Over 96% of our households buy then at least once a month
  • They are not grown commercially in the continental US but in Latin and South America
  • Bananas are harvested every day of the year and are available to us year around
shipping bananas
Shipping Bananas
  • The fruit is packed in 40-pound corrugated boxes
  • They are loaded into special refrigerated truckload-sized containers and driven to a sea port
  • Bananas are loaded on ships within 24 to 48 hours after being cut form the plant
  • They are shipped at a carefully maintained temperature of 58º
  • Before shipping to retail outlets, they are ripened in temperature and humidity controlled rooms.
factors affecting international freight flows
Factors Affecting International Freight Flows
  • National and regional economies are dynamic
  • Business production and distribution has changed
  • Regional and global trade agreements
  • Transportation infrastructure allows more choice in siting new facilities
waterborne freight
Waterborne Freight
  • Between 1970 and 1995
    • International waterborne freight nearly doubled
    • Domestic waterborne freight + 15%
  • Imports and exports increased through coastal ports, but
  • Declined for Great Lakes ports
air freight
Air Freight
  • Imports and exports shipped by air has grown
    • 1970 = 11% of all international trade value
    • 1994 = 25%
  • Air is still a small potion of the weight shipped
surface freight
Surface Freight


  • Canada and Mexico are largest trading partners
  • Detroit, Buffalo and Port Huron are gateway ports with Canada
  • Laredo is dominant gateway port with Mexico
  • Our East-West highway and rail orientation links Pacific coast with Atlantic and Gulf coast




will policy change freight patterns
Will Policy Change Freight Patterns?
  • 1993 North American Free Trade Agreement
    • With Canada and Mexico
  • 1995 World Trade Organization (WTO)Here are two that have!!
commodity movement in the us
Commodity Movement in the US
  • Measured by the 1993 CFS
  • Major categories of freight shipment
    • Raw materials
    • Farm and food products
    • Manufactured, industrial and consumer products
    • Household and business moving
    • Municipal solid waste and other waste materials
sources of freight data
Sources of Freight Data
  • FHWA survey of MPOs
  • NCHRP 8-30 surveyed DOTs and MPOs
  • Conclusion
    • Most state and MPO planners have little experience in freight forecasting
  • Product developed
    • “A Freight Data Handbook for States and MPOs”
tmip freight track projects
TMIP Freight Track Projects
  • Respond to requirements of ISTEA
  • Program links transportation to
    • air quality
    • energy
    • economic growth
    • land use
    • overall quality of life
truck trip estimation procedure ttep
Truck Trip Estimation Procedure (TTEP)
  • It is a technique to extract data from the census’ Vehicle Inventory and Use Survey
  • Allows calculation of averages for planning purposes
  • TEA 21 provided funds to develop software usable by MPOs
    • Provides for a common output from each region of the country
census and bts data bases plus other data sources
Census and BTS Data BasesPlus Other Data Sources
  • BTS’ Directory of Transportation Data Sources, 1996
  • U.S. DOTs and BTS’ National Transportation Library
  • Census and BTS’ Commodity Flow Survey: 1993
  • FRA’s and BTS’ Tail Waybill Data: 1988 - 1992
  • BTS’ and ORNL’s National Transportation Atlas Databases (NTAD), 1997
  • Census, County Business Patterns
  • Census’ and BTS’s Vehicle Inventory and Use Survey
FHWA Motor Carrier Management Information System
  • BTS’ State Freight Profiles
    • Transportation facilities
    • Commodity movements
    • Exports to imports
    • Rail shipments
    • Waterborne commerce
    • Transportation establishments
    • Truck registration and vehicle miles traveled
    • Motor carrier statistics
    • Fatal truck crashes
    • Rail accidents
    • Hazardous materials incidents
4 projects that use cfs data in state and mpo planning
4 Projects That Use CFS Data in State and MPO Planning
  • Biddle, Saurusaitis, Matherly and Perincherry, 1997
    • Develop a model that is both spatially and temporally transferable that will translate nationally available yearly commodity flows into daily truck trips
  • Black, 1997 and 1998
    • Model estimates the production and attraction of 19 commodity groups and two types of mail
    • Looks primarily at the highway and rail sectors
Earlbam, 1998
    • Provides overview of commodity flow in New York State
    • Combines data from
      • 1993 Commodity Flow Survey
      • 1993 U.S. Waterway Data
      • Trans-border Surface Freight Transportation Data
  • Kirshnan and Hancock, 1998
    • Methodology for calculating truck flows on highways
    • Combines
      • 1993 Commodity Flow Survey
      • Highway Performance Monitoring System
lecture points1
Lecture Points
  • Statistics are now available for commodity movements
  • Visualize commodity flows/freight transportation from Global National & State MPOs
  • How data sources are utilized by DOTs and MPOs
ce 350 introduction to transportation planning1

CE 350Introduction to Transportation Planning

TPH Chapter 3

Commodity Flows


Freight Transportation