Download

Aquatic Biodiversity






Advertisement
/ 31 []
Download Presentation
Comments
lorant
From:
|  
(1288) |   (0) |   (0)
Views: 76 | Added:
Rate Presentation: 0 0
Description:
Aquatic Biodiversity. Chapter 8. 8-1 What Is the General Nature of Aquatic Systems?. Concept 8-1A Saltwater and freshwater aquatic life zones cover almost three-fourths of the earth’s surface with oceans dominating the planet.
Aquatic Biodiversity

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use only and may not be sold or licensed nor shared on other sites. SlideServe reserves the right to change this policy at anytime. While downloading, If for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.











- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -




Slide 1

Aquatic Biodiversity

Chapter 8

Slide 2

8-1 What Is the General Nature of Aquatic Systems?

  • Concept 8-1A Saltwater and freshwater aquatic life zones cover almost three-fourths of the earth’s surface with oceans dominating the planet.

  • Concept 8-1B The key factors determining biodiversity in aquatic systems are temperature, dissolved oxygen content, availability of food and availability of light and nutrients necessary for photosynthesis.

Slide 3

8-1 What Is the General Nature of Aquatic Systems?

  • Aquatic life zones cover almost three-fourths of the earth’s surface

    • Saltwater: marine

      • Estuaries

      • Coastal wetlands

      • Coral reefs

      • Mangrove forests

      • Open Ocean

  • Freshwater

    • Lakes

    • Rivers and streams

    • Inland wetlands

Slide 4

Most Aquatic Species Live in Top, Middle, or Bottom Layers of Water

  • Aquatic systems contain floating, drifting, swimming, bottom-dwelling, and decomposer organisms.

    • Plankton: important group of weakly swimming, free-floating organisms

      • Phytoplankton (plant), Zooplankton (animal), Ultraplankton (photosynthetic bacteria)

    • Necton: fish, turtles, whales

    • Benthos: bottom dwellers (barnacles, oysters)

    • Decomposers: breakdown organic compounds (mostly bacteria)

Slide 5

Most Aquatic Species Live in Top, Middle, or Bottom Layers of Water

  • Types and numbers of organism found depend on:

    • Temperature

    • Access to sunlight for photosynthesis

    • Dissolved oxygen content

    • Nutrient availability

  • These characteristics vary with depth.

  • Euphotic zone(“well lit” in Greek)

    • The upper layer through which sunlight can penetrate.

Slide 6

8-2 Why Are Marine Aquatic Systems Important?

  • Concept 8-2 Saltwater ecosystems are irreplaceable reservoirs of biodiversity and provide major ecological and economic services.

Slide 7

8-2 Why Are Marine Aquatic Systems Important?

  • The oceans that occupy most of the earth’s surface provide many ecological and economic services.

  • Scientists estimate that marine systems provide $12 trillion in goods and services per year – 70% more than terrestrial ecosystems.

Slide 8

Estuaries and Coastal Wetlands Are Highly Productive

  • The coastal zone: the warm, nutrient-rich, shallow water that extends from the shoreline to the edge of the continental shelf.

  • The coastal zone makes up less than 10% of the world’s ocean area but contains 90% of all marine species.

    • Subject to human disturbance because of high populations along ocean coastlines.

Slide 9

Estuaries and Coastal Wetlands Are Highly Productive

  • Estuaries are where fresh water rivers empty into the salt water oceans.

    • The fresh water is less dense so it floats on top of the more dense salt water.

  • Estuaries include river mouths, bays, salt marshes, and mangrove forests.

Slide 10

Estuaries and Coastal Wetlands Are Highly Productive

  • Estuaries and coastal marshes provide ecological and economic services.

    • Filter toxic pollutants, excess plant nutrients, sediments, and other pollutants.

    • Reduce storm damage by absorbing waves and storing excess water produced by storms and tsunamis.

    • Provide food and habitats for many aquatic species.

Slide 11

Rocky and Sandy Shores Host Different Types of Organisms

  • Intertidal Zone: the area of a shoreline between low and high tides.

  • Organisms living in the intertidal zone have evolved a number of ways to survive under harsh and changing conditions. They must deal with daily changes in temperature, salinity, wave action, and being left “high and dry”.

Slide 12

Coral Reefs Are Amazing Centers of Biodiversity

  • Coral reefs form in clear, warm coastal waters of the tropics and subtropics.

    • Very important that they have consistently warm water

  • They are home to a huge amount of biodiversity

    • 25% of all marine species

    • “Rain Forest of the Ocean”

Slide 13

Core Case Study: Why Should We Care about Coral Reefs?

  • Biodiversity

  • Important ecological and economic services:

    • Moderate atmospheric temperatures

    • Act as natural barriers protecting coasts from erosion

    • Provide habitats

    • Support fishing and tourism businesses

    • Provide jobs and building materials

    • Studied and enjoyed

Slide 14

Core Case Study: Why Should We Care about Coral Reefs?

  • Degradation and decline:

    • Pollution

    • Overfishing

    • Warmer ocean temperatures

      • Causing coral bleaching

    • Increasing ocean acidity

      • Dissolving coral (calcium carbonate)

Slide 15

The Open Sea and Ocean Floor Host a Variety of Species

  • Euphotic zone: brightly lit surface layer

    • Nutrient levels low, dissolved O2 high, plenty of photosynthetic activity.

  • Bathyal zone: dimly lit middle layer

    • No photosynthetic activity, zooplankton and fish live there and migrate to euphotic zone to feed.

  • Abyssal zone: dark bottom layer

    • Very cold, little dissolved O2.

    • High nutrient levels – filter down from the layers above

      • Upwelling – nutrients are brought to the surface by currents

Slide 16

Major Life Zones and Vertical Zones in an Ocean

Slide 17

8-3 How Have Human Activities Affected Marine Ecosystems?

  • Concept 8-3 Human activities threaten aquatic biodiversity and disrupt ecological and economic services provided by saltwater systems.

Slide 18

8-3 How Have Human Activities Affected Marine Ecosystems?

  • Major threats to marine systems:

    • Coastal development

    • Overfishing

    • Runoff of nonpoint source pollution

    • Point source pollution

    • Habitat destruction

    • Introduction of invasive species

    • Climate change from human activities

    • Pollution of coastal wetlands and estuaries

Slide 19

8-4 Why Are Freshwater Ecosystems Important?

  • Concept 8-4 Freshwater ecosystems provide major ecological and economic services and are irreplaceable reservoirs of biodiversity.

Slide 20

8-4 Why Are Freshwater Ecosystems Important?

  • Freshwater life zones include:

    • Standing (lentic) water

      • lakes, ponds, and inland wetlands

    • Flowing (lotic) systems

      • streams and rivers

Slide 21

Water Stands in Some Freshwater Systems and Flows in Others

  • Lakes are large natural bodies of standing freshwater formed from precipitation, runoff, and groundwater seepage consisting of:

    • Littoral zone(near shore, shallow, with rooted plants)

    • Limnetic zone(open, offshore area, sun-lit)

    • Profundal zone(deep, open water, too dark for photosynthesis)

    • Benthic zone(bottom of lake, nourished by dead matter)

Slide 22

Distinct Zones of Life in a Fairly Deep Temperate Zone Lake

Slide 23

Turnover in a Lake

  • During the summer and winter, lakes become stratified into temperature layers.

  • In the spring and fall, the temperature equalizes and the lakes “overturn”.

    • Oxygen is brought from the surface to the lake bottom and nutrients from the bottom are brought to the top.

Slide 24

Some Lakes Have More Nutrients Than Others

  • Plant nutrients from a lake’s environment affect the types and numbers of organisms it can support.

    • Oligotrophic (poorly nourished) lake: Usually newly formed lake with small supply of plant nutrient input.

    • Mesotrophic(medium nourished) lake: most lakes are in between

    • Eutrophic (well nourished) lake: Over time, sediment, organic material, and inorganic nutrients wash into lakes causing excessive plant growth.

Slide 25

Some Lakes Have More Nutrients Than Others

  • Cultural eutrophication:

    • Human inputs of nutrients from the atmosphere and urban and agricultural areas can accelerate the eutrophication process.

Slide 26

Freshwater Streams and Rivers Carry Water from the Mountains to the Oceans

  • Water flowing from mountains to the sea creates different aquatic conditions and habitats.

Slide 27

Freshwater Streams and Rivers Carry Water from the Mountains to the Oceans

  • Watershed

    or drainage basin

    • the land area that delivers runoff, sediment, and dissolved substance to a stream or river.

  • The larger the watershed, the larger the river it feeds into.

Slide 28

Freshwater Inland Wetlands Are Vital Sponges

  • Inland wetlands act like natural sponges that absorb and store excess water from storms and provide a variety of wildlife habitats.

Slide 29

Freshwater Inland Wetlands Are Vital Sponges

  • Filter and degrade pollutants.

  • Reduce flooding and erosion by absorbing slowly releasing overflows.

  • Help replenish stream flows during dry periods.

  • Help recharge ground aquifers.

  • Provide economic resources and recreation.

Slide 30

8-5 How Have Human Activities Affected Freshwater Ecosystems?

  • Concept 8-5 Human activities threaten biodiversity and disrupt ecological and economic services provided by freshwater lakes, rivers, and wetlands.

Slide 31

8-5 How Have Human Activities Affected Freshwater Ecosystems?

  • Human activities are disrupting the freshwater ecosystems in many ways:

    • Construction of dams and canals on rivers

    • Flood control levees and dikes alter and destroy aquatic habitats.

    • Cities and farmlands add pollutants and excess plant nutrients to streams and rivers.

    • Many inland wetlands have been drained or filled for agriculture or (sub)urban development.


Copyright © 2014 SlideServe. All rights reserved | Powered By DigitalOfficePro