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Psychology. Stephen F. Davis Emporia State University Joseph J. Palladino University of Southern Indiana PowerPoint Presentation by H. Lynn Bradman Metropolitan Community College-Omaha. Learning. Chapter 5. What is Learning?.

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Psychology

Stephen F. DavisEmporia State University

Joseph J. PalladinoUniversity of Southern Indiana

PowerPoint Presentation by H. Lynn Bradman

Metropolitan Community College-Omaha

Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall


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Learning

Chapter 5

Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall


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What is Learning?

  • Learning occurs when experience produces a relatively permanent change in behavior.

Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall


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Classical Conditioning

  • Classical conditioning involves pairing an unconditioned stimulus (UCS), which automatically elicits an unconditioned response (UCR), with a conditioned stimulus (CS), which is neutral at the start of conditioning.

  • Several pairings during an acquisition phase lead to a situation in which the CS presented by itself elicits a conditioned response (CR).

Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall


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Classical Conditioning

  • Several pairings during an acquisition phase lead to a situation in which the CS presented by itself elicits a conditioned response (CR).

Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall


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Classical Conditioning

  • When the UCS is intense and presented more frequently, stronger classical conditioning is produced.

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Classical Conditioning

  • The classically conditioned response is eliminated or extinguished when the UCS is removed or not presented; this process is called extinction.

Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall


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Classical Conditioning

  • Spontaneous recovery of the CR occurs when time is allowed to pass between extinction sessions.

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Classical Conditioning

  • Generalization occurs when CRs are elicited by stimuli that are similar to the CS.

  • Discrimination is the opposing process; it involves responding only to the appropriate CS.

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Classical Conditioning

  • John Watson and Rosalie Rayner demonstrated that emotions can be learned by classically conditioning 9-month-old Little Albert to fear a white rat.

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Classical Conditioning

  • This child exhibited a phobia, which is a fear for certain activities, objects, or situations.

  • The research conducted by Watson and Rayner would not be considered ethical by present-day standards.

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Classical Conditioning

  • Learned motives and foamed goals (or learned incentives) are acquired through classical conditioning.

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Classical Conditioning

  • Our understanding of classical conditioning has been subject to revision since Pavlov introduced the basic processes.

  • For example, although the association of CS with UCS is important in establishing conditioning, the real key is the degree to which the CS predicts occurrence of the UCS.

  • Previous trials of a CS-UCS pairing can serve to block the effectiveness of a second CS.

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Classical Conditioning

  • Previous trials of a CS-UCS pairing can serve to block the effectiveness of a second CS.

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Classical Conditioning

  • For many species, the pairing of a novel taste with the experience of illness results in learning an aversion to that taste.

Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall


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Classical Conditioning

  • Taste-aversion learning occurs readily in humans; birds, however, more readily associate a color with illness.

  • Preparedness is evident when some species are more likely to form certain associations than others.

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Operant Conditioning

  • Operant conditioning occurs when an organism performs a target response that is followed by a reinforcer, which increases the probability that the behavior (target response) will occur again.

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Operant Conditioning

  • All reinforcers increase the frequency of the response they follow.

  • Positive reinforcers are presented after the target response has been made; negative reinforcers are withdrawn or taken away after the target response has been made.

Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall


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Operant Conditioning

Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall


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Operant Conditioning

  • Primary reinforcers (for example, food) satisfy basic biological needs; secondary (conditioned) reinforcers (for example, money) acquire their power to reinforce behavior by being associated with primary reinforcers.

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Operant Conditioning

  • Complex responses may be acquired gradually through the process of shaping (successive approximations).

  • Psychologists can keep track of the rate of responding by using a cumulative record, which keeps track of all target responses made by an organism across time.

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Operant Conditioning

  • Once a behavior has been acquired, it may be reinforced according to a particular schedule of reinforcement.

  • When a ratio schedule is in effect, the number of responses is important.

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Operant Conditioning

  • Fixed-ratio (FR) schedules require that a set number of responses be made before a reinforcer is delivered.

  • Variable-ratio (VR) schedules require that the participant perform differing numbers of responses to obtain a reinforcer.

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Operant Conditioning

  • With an Interval schedule, a certain amount of time must pass before a response is reinforced.

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Operant Conditioning

  • With a fixed-interval (FI) schedule, the time interval is constant.

  • The time interval changes after each reinforcer is delivered when a variable-interval (VI) schedule is used.

  • Ratio schedules generally produce higher rates of responding than interval schedules.

Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall


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Operant Conditioning

  • Operant responses that are not reinforced each time during training take much longer to extinguish than ones that have received continuous reinforcement.

  • This phenomenon is known as the partial (intermittent) reinforcement effect.

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Operant Conditioning

  • A discriminative stimulus signals that responses will be reinforced.

  • Behavior is said to be under stimulus control when responding occurs only when the discriminative stimulus is present.

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Operant Conditioning

  • The opposite of reinforcement, punishment, involves presentation or withdrawal of stimuli called punishers, which results in a suppression of the target behavior.

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Cognitive and Social Perspectives On Learning

  • Insight learning involves restructuring our perceptual stimuli to achieve the solution to a problem.

  • Such perceptual restructuring and solutions typically occur rapidly.

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Cognitive and Social Perspectives On Learning

  • Latent learning occurs when learning has taken place but is not demonstrated until a later time.

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Cognitive and Social Perspectives On Learning

  • Observational learning takes place when we observe and identify with the behaviors of others.

  • Advertisements and television commercials appeal to this process.

  • Televised violence may result in observational learning and lead to an increase in violent behaviors.

Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall


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