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PSYCHOLOGY. Theories of Emotion. Questions:. What’s the connection between what we think & feel? Can we change the way we feel by changing our thoughts? Can we experience emotion before thinking?. Questions:. Give an example of how an emotion/emotions has affected your thinking?

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Psychology

PSYCHOLOGY

Theories of Emotion


Questions

Questions:

  • What’s the connection between what we think & feel?

  • Can we change the way we feel by changing our thoughts?

  • Can we experience emotion before thinking?


Questions1

Questions:

  • Give an example of how an emotion/emotions has affected your thinking?

  • Ex. I am sad/depressed (emotion), it’s is going to be a bad day or every one is so crabby today (thoughts - perceptions/intepretations)


Cartoon rating

Cartoon rating

# your paper 1-7

Rate 7 cartoons on level of funniness 1-5

1 = Not funny at all

5 = Very funny


Pen in the mouth experiment

Pen in the mouth experiment

  • Results of the experiment:

    1. Those students induced to smile (pen held in with the teeth) rate the cartoon as funnier then those induced to frown (pen held with the lips).


Pen in the mouth experiment1

Pen in the mouth experiment

  • Results of the experiment:

    2. The results of the experiment suggest that facial expressions help determine emotional reactions.

    3. Consistent w/ James-Lange theory

    • Ex. We feel sorry because we cry


What is emotion

What is Emotion?

  • Emotion- a response of the whole organism, involving 3 components of emotion


3 components of emotion

3 components of emotion

1. physiological arousal

  • heart racing

    2. expressive behaviors

  • walk faster

    3. conscious experience

  • I’m scared -fear


Theories of emotion

Theories of Emotion

  • Does your heart pound because you are afraid... or are you afraid because you feel your heart pounding?


James lange theory of emotion

Sight of

oncoming

car

(perception of

stimulus)

Pounding

heart

(arousal)

Fear

(emotion)

James-Lange Theory of Emotion

  • Experience of emotion is awareness of physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli


James lange theory

James & Lange Theory

1. James & Lange Theory

  • emotion grows from our body’s arousal and/or state of being

    Evidence to support:

    • subtle physiological distinctions among emotions

    • Spinal cord injury study

      Implications: want to feel happy?, start smiling, look cheerful, act joyful


Spinal cord injury study

Spinal cord injury study

  • Hohmann’s research w/WWII soldiers w/ spinal cord injuries

    • From the neck down injuries reported decrease in emotional intensity

    • Emotions above the neck were felt more intensely, ex. Lump in throat, crying

    • Support for James-Lange


Cannon bard theory of emotion

Pounding

heart

(arousal)

Sight of

oncoming

car

(perception of

stimulus)

Fear

(emotion)

Cannon-BardTheory of Emotion

  • Emotion-arousing stimuli simultaneously trigger:

    • physiological responses

    • subjective experience of emotion


Cannon bard theory

Cannon & Bard Theory

2. Cannon & Bard Theory

  • Emotion is simultaneously physiological responses & subjective experience of emotion

  • Evidence to support - emotions are physiologically similar

    • Example of experiment - people watching movies in 4 rooms


Movie experiment

Movie experiment

  • experiment - people watching movies in 4 rooms

  • What was the independent variable?

  • What was the dependent variable?

  • Results?

    • Type of movie

    • Measure of physiological response

    • Can learn to detect the bored but detecting the other 3 is difficult due to similar physiological responses


Checking for understanding of theories

Checking for understanding of theories

  • Imagine your brain can not sense your heart pounding or your sweaty hands. How does this affect your experienced emotions according the

  • James-Lange theory?

  • Cannon-Bard theory?


Answers

Answers:

  • James-Lange

    • No emotion would be experienced or diminished emotion because their theory says your emotions come from your bodies arousal (signaling emotion)

    • No signal…no or little emotion


Answers1

Answers:

  • Cannon-Bard

    • You’d have a subjective experience of emotion because emotions are experienced separately from the bodies arousal (though it is simultaneous)


Questions2

Questions:

  • What evidence is presented to support the idea that physical reactions (ex. Heart beating fast) are an important ingredient of emotion?

  • Which theory would this evidence provide support for?


Answer

Answer:

  • Hohmann’s research w/WWII soldiers w/ spinal cord injuries

    • From the neck down injuries reported decrease in emotional intensity

    • Emotions above the neck were felt more intensely, ex. Lump in throat, crying

    • Support for James-Lange


Practice

Practice:

  • I was afraid because I was trembling. Which theory emotion fits this statement?

    J-L or C-B

    • James - Lange


Practice1

Practice:

  • When I got checked into the hockey boards my sympathetic nervous system failed to respond (was not aroused), but I still experience emotion.

  • Which theory does this support?

    J-L or C-B

    • Cannon-Bard


Cognition emotion

Cognition & emotion

  • Whether we fear the man in the dark, alley behind us depends on how we interpret him - friend or foe?

  • What’s the connection between how we think & feel?

  • Are our feelings subject to our appraisal or perception of a situation?


Schachter s two factor theory of emotion

Pounding

heart

(arousal)

Sight of

oncoming

car

(perception of

stimulus)

Fear

(emotion)

Cognitive

label

“I’m afraid”

Schachter’s Two-Factor Theory of Emotion

  • To experience emotion one must:

    • be physically aroused

    • cognitively label the arousal


Schachter s two factor theory of emotion1

Schachter’s Two-Factor Theory of Emotion

3. Schachter’s Two-Factor Theory of Emotion

  • To experience emotion one must:

    • be physically aroused

    • cognitively label the arousal


Schachter s beliefs

Schachter’s beliefs:

  • Agreed w/James & Lange that experience of emotion grows from our body’s arousal

  • Agreed w/Cannon & Bard that emotions are physiologically similar

    Therefore emotional experience requires conscious thought of the arousal

    Thoughts are an essential ingredient of emotion - 2 ingredients: physical arousal & cognitive label


Spill over effect

Spill over effect

  • Schachter & Singer experiment: p. 520

    Situation: Injection of hormone (epinephrine),

    waiting room w/euphoric or irritated accomplice

    • Independent variables: information given about drugs effect

    • Dependent variable: reaction to situation

    • Experimental/Control Groups: told of expect arousal from the drug, told the drug would produce no effect


Spill over effect cont

Spill over effect cont.

  • Results:

    • arousal can intensify any emotion

    • we can have different emotional reactions based on how we interpret & label an event

    • arousal from emotions can spill from emotion to another


Application to understanding behavior

Application to understanding behavior

  • Example:

    Work out at gym, come home & husband says “what’s for supper?”

    Responses: “What do you mean what’s for supper? I work all day too. Why don’t you figure it out!” or Steak honey it is going to be awesome!

    Verses the response you might have if you were not aroused & calm, how you interpret & label the question, etc.


Questions3

Questions:

  • Must cognition precede emotion?

    • Zajonc says no

  • What is the brains shortcut to emotion?

    • Figure 38.5 p. 522


Cognition and emotion

Cognition and Emotion

  • The brain’s shortcut for emotions


Brain shortcut to emotion

Brain shortcut to emotion

Eye or ear via thalamus (switchboard) & amygdala (emotional control center)

  • Implication: emotions can hijack our thinking faster then thinking can affect feeling

  • Support for Zajonc’s beliefs - cognition is not always necessary for emotion


Disagreement w zajonc

Disagreement w/ Zajonc

  • R. Lazarus

    • Even instantaneously felt emotions require some cognitive appraisal of the situation, otherwise, how do we know what we are reacting to?

    • Appraisal may not require conscious awareness but it is still a mental function (cognition-thinking)


Two routes to emotion

Two Routes to Emotion


Complex vs simple emotion

Complex vs. Simple Emotion

  • Simple emotions (likes/dislikes, fear) are harder to change with our thinking

  • Complex emotions (guilt, love/hate, sad) involve interpretation/perception & expectation, we can learn to think and then feel more easily


Implications questions

Implications/Questions:

  • Learn to think more positively about yourself or the world and the world around you helps your feel better and appear more upbeat.

  • Are you an emotional person? How does that affect your interpretations?

  • What do you attribute events to?

  • Only you can control your perceptions.

  • Ex. P. 504


2 dimensions of emotion

2 dimensions of emotion

  • 1. Valance

  • 2. Arousal


Two dimensions valance arousal

Positive

valence

pleasant

relaxation

joy

Low

arousal

High

arousal

fear

anger

sadness

Negative

valence

Two Dimensions (valance & arousal)


Practice2

Practice:

  • I am sweating because I am nervous for this test. I am sweating because the girl I have a crush on is sitting next to me. Which theory best explains the differing emotional response?

    2 factor theory

    Schachter


Practice3

Practice:

  • I was watching action packed movie and my brother made some comments to me. I more likely to do what?

  • Misattribute his comments

  • Spill over effect

  • Interpret & label

  • 2 factor theory Schachter


Practice4

Practice:

  • What type of emotion would be harder to change? Why?

  • Simple emotion

  • Brains shortcut - no thinking involved, emotions are hijacked


Practice5

Practice

  • Go to p. 505 in textbook


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