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EXPLORING SPACE Ch 2, Section 2.1. Exploring Space. Entering Space Going into Space The Age of Rockets Sputnik: The Russian Moon Armstrong’s Small Step Space Comes of Age Major Trends in Space Space International Space Science Big and Small The New High Ground The Future.

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Exploring space ch 2 section 2 1

EXPLORING SPACECh 2, Section 2.1

Exploring space

Exploring Space

Entering Space

Going into Space

The Age of Rockets

Sputnik: The Russian Moon

Armstrong’s Small Step

Space Comes of Age

Major Trends in Space

Space International

Space Science Big and Small

The New High Ground

The Future

What combination made it possible





What combination made it possible1






What combination made it possible2







What combination made it possible3








Military necessity

Military Necessity

  • William Congreve

  • British Colonel

  • Developed incendiary rockets

  • 1800s

  • Used during Napoleonic Wars

Military necessity1

Military Necessity

  • Used during War of 1812 in the U.S.

  • Star-Spangled Banner

  • Francis Scott Key

  • “The Rocket’s Red Glare”

Where are rockets being used today

Where Are Rockets Being Used Today?


Rocketry in russia

Rocketry in Russia

Konstantin Tsiolkovsky

Rocketry in russia1

Rocketry in Russia

Bureau for the Study of the Problems of Rockets (1924)

Age of rockets germany

Age of Rockets:Germany

Treaty of Versailles inspired post-WWI interest in rockets as an alternative to prohibited heavy artillery

German government’s support of rocket societies played pivotal role in development of the V-2 rocket—the world’s first ballistic missile

Age of rockets post wwii

Age of Rockets:Post WWII

Defeat of Germany resulted in recruitment of German rocket scientists by U.S. and Russia

Wernher Von Braun and 68 captured V-2 rockets became the basis of the U.S. rocket program

Age of rockets united states

Age of Rockets: United States

Robert H. Goddard (1882-1945)

Launched first liquid-fueled rocket in 1926

Lacked support from US government

Age of rockets after wwii

Age of Rockets:after WWII

V-2 experiments accelerated study of rockets and under-standing of space challenges

Cold War brought development of intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) to deliver nuclear warheads

V-2 Rocket in White Sands, NM

Sputnik the cold war and the space race

Sputnik, the Cold War and the Space Race

Russian Launch of Sputnik (4 Oct 1957)

First man-made orbiting satellite

Starting gun for the space race

Rapid succession of research and launches fueled battle for national prestige

The cold war and the space race

The Cold War and the Space Race

Explorer 1

First US satellite

Sputnik II

Carried first living creature to space—dog named Laika

Sputnik III

Geophysical laboratory

Explorer 1 Satellite

The cold war and the space race1

The Cold War and the Space Race

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) formed Oct 1958

Budget ballooned to keep pace

Russia’s Launch of Luna III (Oct 1959) provided the first photographs of the Moon’s dark side

The cold war and the space race2

The Cold War and the Space Race

Mecury-Atlas 1 (29 Jul 1960)

Exploded 1 minute after liftoff

Mercury-Redstone 1 (21 Nov 1960)

Collapsed shortly after ignition when engines cut out

Mercury-Redstone 2 (21 Jan 1961)

Launched Ham, the chimpanzee, on sub-orbital flight

The cold war crewed spaceflight

The Cold War:Crewed Spaceflight

Yuri Gagarin

12 Apr 1961

One orbit of Earth

Gus Grissom and Alan Shepherd

May and July of 1961

Sub-orbital flights

Gherman Titov

7 Aug 1961

17 orbits of Earth

Yuri Gagrin

The cold war other successes

The Cold War:Other Successes

Echo 1

12 Aug 1960

Large “balloon” satellite reflected signal

Telstar 1

10 Jul 1962

Actively relayed communications signal

Echo 1

Armstrong s small step

Armstrong’s Small Step

Saturn V rocket boosted Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin, and Ed White to the Moon

Armstrong and Aldrin became the first humans to set foot on the Moon

First on the Moon

Satellites and interplanetary probes

Satellites and Interplanetary Probes

Satellites act as navigation beacons, relay stations for radio and television signals and other forms of communication.

Interplanetary probes helped us learn more about the nature of our solar system.

Space comes of age

Space Comes of Age

Major Trends in Space

Space International

Space Science Big and Small

The New High Ground

The Future

Space international

Space International

Increased cooperation between the United States and the former Soviet Union

US Shuttle docked nine times with Russia’s space station Mir from 1995 to 1998

The proposed US “Space Station Freedom” was revamped as the “International Space Station”

Russians brought in as a major partner

Unprecedented cooperation among 16 nations

Space international1

Space International

International Space Station

Russian Space Station Mir

Space science missions

Space Science Missions

Large, expensive space programs such as Magellan and the Hubble Space Telescope began the 1990s

Reduced budgets and the need to be “faster, better, cheaper” ushered in a new era in the late 1990s

Big missions magellan

Big Missions—Magellan

Mapped 98% of Venus’s surface from 1990 to 1994

Revealed volcanic eruptions on Venus’s changing surface

Magellan Spacecraft

Big missions galileo

Big Missions—Galileo

Launched in 1989 to explore Jupiter

Captured close-up images of asteroids

Investigated impact of the Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9

Sent probe through Jupiter’s atmosphere

Discovered frozen water on the moon, Europa, and possibly on the moon, Callisto

Did a low-altitude pass by the moon, Io

Big missions galileo1

Big Missions—Galileo

Galileo with Jupiter in the background

Big missions ulysses

Big Missions—Ulysses

Flew over poles of the Sun in 1994 and 1995

Measured solar wind and other solar properties

Ulysses: NASA and ESA combined mission

Big missions cassini

Big Missions—Cassini

Scheduled to reach Saturn in 2004

Will send probe to the surface of Saturn’s Earth-sized moon, Titan

May be the last of the multi-billion-dollar probes

Big missions hubble

Big Missions—Hubble

Long series of remarkable discoveries attributed to Hubble

Stars being born

Stars at the end of their lives

Black holes

Chemical makeup of Saturn’s moons

Size and age of universe narrowed down

Shuttle Astronaut repairs Hubble

Small missions stardust

Small Missions—Stardust

Will rendezvous with a comet: Wild-2

Will sample fragments of comet and interstellar dust

Will return samples to Earth in 2006

Discovery Mission: Stardust

Small missions mars pathfinder

Small Missions—Mars Pathfinder

Landed rover on Mars

Returned high-resolution imagery

Demonstrated simple low-cost landing

Mars’ Twin Peaks

Other small missions

Other Small Missions

Lunar Prospector: found large amounts of ice on the Moon

Near-Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR): sent up-close imagery and data from the asteroid, Eros

Lunar Prospector

Space incorporated

Space Incorporated

Commercial investment in space surpassed government spending for the first time in the 1990’s

Commercial uses of GPS soared

Communications satellites fueled demand for cell phones and high-speed digital data transmission

Worldwide market for launch service evolved

Pegasus—launched from commercial aircraft

Converted ICBMs—peaceful use of decommissioned weapons

The new high ground

The New High Ground

1990-1991 Persian Gulf War highlighted pivotal role space assets play in modern warfare

GPS allowed navigation across faceless desert

Early warning for enemy’s tactical-missile launches (Defense Support Program) helped forces prepare and intercept

Weather satellites predicted sand storms

Intelligence satellites provided imagery on troop movement and battle-damage assessment

The new high ground1

The New High Ground

USAF identifies other ways to exploit space power

Global awareness

Intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance

Weather prediction

Early warning

Global reach

Ability to deploy troops or weapons anywhere in the world

Global power

Command, control and communications

Weapons targeting

The new high ground2

The New High Ground

Defense Support Program (DSP)

GPS Block 2F

The future

The Future

People still willing to take great risks for further exploration and discovery

1986 Challenger accident

2003 Columbia accident

Continued scientific experiments onboard the International Space Station

Continued inexpensive uncrewed missions to other planets will gather information

21st Century: crewed mission to Mars?

Organizing the air force for space operations

Organizing the Air Force for Space Operations

A Beginning

Early Visions of Space Operations

The Gaither Commission

The First Space Tracking Stations

The First Satellite

From “Air” to “Aerospace”

Organizing the air force for space operations1

Organizing the Air Force for Space Operations

NORAD Begins

Anti-Ballistic Missile Programs

Strategic Air Command’s Era

A New Command Is Born

Consolidating Space Missions

A beginning

A Beginning

Use of the V-2 in World War II showed rockets had military applications

US use of a nuclear weapon to end the war in the Pacific heightened mistrust between Russia and the West

Postwar recruitment of German scientists by both the West and Russia advanced early rocket programs

Early visions of space operations

Early Visions of Space Operations

RAND corporation published Preliminary Design of an Experimental World-circling Spaceship

Soviets’ test of first hydrogen bomb and suspected development of missile delivery systems heightened drive for early-warning and tracking systems

The gaither commission

The Gaither Commission

Commission appointed by President Eisenhower to assess civil defense posture following a nuclear attack

Commission also assessed whether a US counter strike was possible

Showed counterstrike unlikely due to inability to predict attack until first warhead fell

Accelerated US ICBM development and other strategic programs

The first space tracking stations

The First Space Tracking Stations


Built by the Naval Research Laboratory

Network of simple ground tracking stations developed to track a proposed new satellite under the Vanguard Program


Smithsonian Institution developed a network of Baker-Nunn Cameras

Sought civilian volunteers to phone in when they saw the satellite

The first satellite

The First Satellite

Launch of Sputnik shocked the US and highlighted Minitrack’s inability to accurately track Sputnik

Sputnik tracking mainly from Moonwatch teams

Department of Defense’s Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) established Project Shepherd as an effort to improve Minitrack’s tracking problems

From air to aerospace

From “Air” to “Aerospace”

1959 change to the Air Force mission added the word “aerospace” to recognize space’s new importance

ARPA opened a system program office to develop equipment and techniques to track space objects and incoming Soviet missiles

By the mid 1960s, had three radar sites that could give 15-minute warning of missile impact

Radar sites also tracked space objects

Norad begins

NORAD Begins

North American Air Defense Command (NORAD) established in Sep 1957

Joint effort with Canada

Mission to defend combined airspace of US and Canada

Development of submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBMs) by US and Soviets created a need for more tracking stations

Air Force developed several radars on the Atlantic, Pacific and Gulf Coasts

Entire system operational by 1972

Air force developments

Air Force Developments

SLBM warning augmented by Air Force’s new space-tracking radar in Florida

Air Force brought more tracking ability by developing PAVE PAWS radar sites

Powerful phased-array radar—steerable beam

Sites established in Massachusetts, California, Georgia, and Texas

Anti ballistic missile programs

Anti-ballistic Missile Programs

DoD attempted to establish a defense shield against Soviet missile attack

Covered one area of US: ICBM sites in North Dakota to enable US counter strike if attacked

Shut down by congress in 1976 due to great expense and low probability of success

Air Force took over the system’s radars to

Aid early warning for SLBMs over Hudson Bay

Add coverage for ICBM early warning

Improve accurate space tracking

Strategic air command s era

Strategic Air Command’s Era

Strategic Air Command (SAC) took over administrative control of people and equipment in space surveillance and missile-warning missions

NORAD maintained operational control over these missions

Several studies in the 1970s suggested the need for reorganization

A new command is born

A New Command is Born

Space Command began in 1982 under General James V. Hartinger

SAC passed operational control of at least 25 space-surveillance and missile-warning sensors to Space Command

Air Force Space Command Headquarters

Merging space missions

Merging Space Missions

Air Force Systems Command controlled much of the Air Force’s launch systems and satellites

Systems Command not always sensitive to the needs of the warfighters USING assets

AF Space Command sought to take over these functions to service the warfighter more directly

Merging space missions cont d

Merging Space Missions (cont’d)

AF Space Command opened the Consolidated Space Operations Center

Handles operations for all DOD satellites

Took over control of most AF satellites

Global Positioning System (GPS)

Defense Satellite Communications System (DSCS)

Defense Support Program (DSP)

Merging space missions cont d1

Merging Space Missions (cont’d)

AF Space Command (AFSPC) took control of all AF launch systems and operations in 1990

AFSPC operates all launches at Cape Canaveral AS, FL and Vandenberg AFB, CA

Systems include Atlas E, Atlas II, Delta II, Titan II, and Titan IV

Air force launch systems

Air Force Launch Systems

Atlas II

Delta II

Current af mission

Current AF Mission

Today’s Air Force Mission: “Defend the United States through control and exploitation of air and space”



Entering Space

Space Comes of Age

Organizing the Air Force for Space Operations

Exploring space ch 2 section 2 1


You now have historical perspective on our early experience in space

You’re now ready to begin your own exploration of space

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