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## PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Building Functions from Logic Gates' - liluye

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Building Functions from Logic Gates

- We\'ve already seen how to implement truth tablesusing AND, OR, and NOT -- an example of combinational logic.
- Combinational Logic Circuit
- output depends only on the current inputs
- stateless
- Sequential Logic Circuit
- output depends on the sequence of inputs (past and present)
- stores information (state) from past inputs
- We\'ll first look at some useful combinational circuits,then show how to use sequential circuits to store information.

Full Adder

Consider computing 7+6=13:

A combinational logic design

Now, consider one column of this addition:

Putting It All Together: Full Adder

- Add two bits and carry-in, produce one-bit sum and carry-out.

Multiplexer (MUX)

- A device with multiple inputs and 1 output
- Could be used to allocate a resource to one of multiple clients:

MUX

- A 2n-to-1 multiplexer (MUX) sends one of 2n input lines to a single output line
- A MUX has two sets of inputs:
- 2n data input lines
- n select lines used to pick one of the 2n data inputs
- Simplest example is a 2-to-1 MUX

Multiplexer (MUX)

- n-bit selector and 2n inputs, one output
- output equals one of the inputs, depending on selector

00

01

10

11

4-to-1 MUX

Decoder

- General example:
- Assume that some information is encoded in n bits
- For each encoding, we want to activate the (one) correct output line
- The general idea: given an n-bit input
- Detect which of the 2n combinations is represented
- Produce 2n output, only one of which is “1”
- A n-to-2n decoder takes an n-bit input and produces 2n outputs. The n inputs represent a binary number that determines which one of the 2n outputs is “true” (i.e., 1).

2-to4 Decoder

This circuit decodes a binary input into one of four possible choices, or codes

Representing Multi-bit Values

- Number bits from right (0) to left (n-1)
- just a convention -- could be left to right, but must be consistent
- Use brackets to denote range:D[l:r] denotes bit l to bit r, from left to right
- May also see A<14:9>, especially in hardware block diagrams.

0

15

A = 0101001101010101

A[2:0] = 101

A[14:9] = 101001

Multibit Values in Circuit Diagrams

- A 4-to-1 mux, selecting one byte out of a 32-bit value...

Combinational vs. Sequential

- Combinational Circuit
- always gives the same output for a given set of inputs
- ex: adder always generates sum and carry,regardless of previous inputs
- Sequential Circuit
- stores information
- output depends on stored information (state) plus input
- so a given input might produce different outputs,depending on the stored information
- example: ticket counter
- advances when you push the button
- output depends on previous state
- useful for building “memory” elements and “state machines”

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