Forest Management and Timber Harvest Planning. Mark Hitchcock CF, MFS Fairweather Forestry 360-766-6500 [email protected] Basic Questions For Forest Landowners. What are your forest management objectives? What are the physical attributes of your land?
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Evidence of root rot infestation. Root wads appear incomplete, or “fist-like“, due to root decay.
Fallen trees are “jack-strawed” and do not appear directionally felled, as in windthrow.
Later evidence of bark beetle infestation. The first signs of attack are pitch tubes marking where
female beetles have entered the tree. Secondary evidence is dry boring dust, similar to fine sawdust,
found in bark crevices and around the tree base.
Crown type classifications of trees in even-age stands. D= dominant, C= codominant, I= intermediate, W= wolf, S= suppressed, M= mortality. The “crown ratio” is the proportion of total tree height that is occupied by live crown. In this illustration, the dominants have a 50 percent crown ratio; the wolf tree has an 80 percent crown ratio.
Stand Age = 28 Years dominant, C= codominant, I= intermediate, W= wolf, S= suppressed, M= mortality. The “crown ratio” is the proportion of total tree height that is occupied by live crown. In this illustration, the dominants have a 50 percent crown ratio; the wolf tree has an 80 percent crown ratio.
TPA = 397 (RA = 81)
QMD = 10.4
TPA = 150 (RA = 0)
QMD = 12.9
TPA = 150 (RA = 20)
QMD = 12.1
A heavily thinned stand at age 50 – 30 years dominant, C= codominant, I= intermediate, W= wolf, S= suppressed, M= mortality. The “crown ratio” is the proportion of total tree height that is occupied by live crown. In this illustration, the dominants have a 50 percent crown ratio; the wolf tree has an 80 percent crown ratio.
after the first thinning. This is a highly productive
site where thinnings have reduced stand density to
a low number of large trees. The open condition
has allowed the development of understory plants.
A portion of the same stand, un-thinned, at age 50.
The stand has developed to a high density with
many smaller trees and few plants growing in the
understory because of a lack of light reaching the
A small cable yarding system equipped with a motorized, clamping carriage is commonly
employed to selectively harvest timber on steep slopes or over vulnerable soils. Use of
intermediate supports can extend yarding distances, thereby reducing the costs and impacts
of road construction.
Motorized carriage in action! clamping carriage is commonly
conditions, but soil and weather conditions may reduce gradability.
economical yarding in a variety of silviculture
prescriptions. The use of a cable winch and chokers,
as shown in this picture, increases machine versatility
and reduces soil compaction compared with using the
same machine equipped with a grapple.
A crawler tractor is among the most versatile of
machines. When equipped with winch and chokers or
a grapple, as shown in this picture, it can be used for
yarding. Wide, low ground pressure tracks reduce soil
A method of commercial thinning now the best
common is the use of a harvester-forwarder
combination in what is called a cut-to-length
system. The harvester moves through the
stand felling, delimbing, bucking, and
bunching trees selected for harvest;
meanwhile a forwarder loads and moves
these processed logs to the truck road where
it then unloads and sorts the logs into decks
for log truck pickup.
skid trails. In this example, random skid trails result in about 25% more
ground disturbance that designated skid trails.
A rub tree is left intentionally to protect selected leave trees during harvest operations.
Rub trees should be removed, from back to front, after all other logs have been removed.
The gradual decay of wildlife reserve trees into snags. trees during harvest operations.
Useful Web Sites trees during harvest operations.
Washington State University Cooperative Extension
Oregon State University Extension
USDA Forest Service Pacific Northwest Research Station
Graphics, Tables, and Pictures Shamelessly Borrowed From:
Creighton, J.H. and D.M. Baumgartner. 1997. Wildlife ecology and forest habitat. EC1866, WSU Cooperative Extension, Pullman, WA
Duncan, S. 2002. Volume, value, and thinning: logs for the future. Science Findings Issue 48, USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station.
Garland, J.J. 1997. Designated skid trails minimize soil compaction. EC1110, OSU Extension Service, Corvallis, OR.
Greulich, F.R., D.P. Hanley, J.F. McNeel, and D.M. Baumgartner. 1999. A primer for timber harvesting. EB1316, WSU Cooperative Extension, Pullman, WA.
Schlosser, W., D.M. Baumgartner, D.P. Hanley, S. Gibbs, and V. Corraro. 1996. Managing your timber sale. EB1818, WSU Cooperative Extension, Pullman, WA.
Stathers, R.J., T.P. Rollerson, and S.J. Mitchell. 1994. Windthrow handbook for British Columbia forests. Working Paper 9401, British Columbia Ministry of Forestry, Victoria, B.C.