Group dynamics
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GROUP DYNAMICS. A General Model of Group Dynamics. A group is two or more persons who interact with one another that each person influenced by each other person. Definition of Groups . Classification Scheme for Types of Groups. Formal Group

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GROUP DYNAMICS

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GROUP DYNAMICS


A General Model of Group Dynamics


A group is two or more persons who interact with one another that each person influenced by each other person

Definition of Groups


Classification Scheme for Types of Groups


  • Formal Group

    Are formed by the organization to do its work and usually are included in the organization chart

    • Command/Functional Group

      Is a relatively permanent, formal group with functional reporting relationships.

    • Task Group

      Is a relatively temporary, formal group established to do a specific task

Types of Group


  • Informal groups

    - Established by their members

    • Friendship group

      • Relatively permanent and informal and draws its benefits from the social relationships among its members

    • Interest group

      • Relatively temporary and informal and is organized around a common activity or interest of its members


  • Mutual acceptance

    • stage of group development is characterized by members sharing information about themselves and getting to know each other.

  • Communication and Decision Making

    • Members discuss their feelings more openly and agree on group goals and individual roles in the group

Stages of Group Development


  • Motivation and Productivity

    • Members cooperate, help each other and work toward task accomplishment

    • Control and organization

    • Members work together and are flexible, adaptive, and self-correcting


  • Group performance factors including;

    • Composition

    • Size

    • Norms

    • Cohesiveness

      • They affect the success of the group in fulfilling its goal

Group Performance Factors


  • Group Composition

    • Degree of similarity or differences in the characteristics of the members on factors important to the group’s work.

      • SOURCE: Based on discussion in Bernard M. Bass and Edward C. Ryterband, Organizational Psychology, 2nd ed.


  • Group size

    • Number of members of the group and affects the number of resources available to perform the task

  • Group norm

    • Standard against which the appropriateness of a behavior is measured

      • Norms help the group survive

      • Norms simplify and make more predictable the behaviors expected of group members

      • Norms help the group avoid embarrassing situations

      • Norms express the central values of the group and identify the group to others


Group Cohesiveness

Factors that affect group cohesiveness

and consequences of group cohesiveness


  • Group Polarization

    • Tendency for a group’s average post-discussion attitudes to be more extreme than its average pre-discussion attitudes.

  • Groupthink

    • Mode of thinking that occurs when members of a group are deeply involved in a cohesive in group and desire for unanimity offsets their motivation to appraise alternative courses of action

Group Decision Making


  • Participation in Decision Making

    • Important part of managing motivation, leadership, organization structure, and decision-making processes

  • Group Problem Solving

    • Brainstorming

      • Technique used in the alternative generative phase of decision making that assists in development of numerous alternative courses of action

    • Nominal Group Technique (NGT)

      • Group members follow a generate discussion vote cycle until they reach an appropriate decision.

    • The Delphi technique

      • Method of systematically gathering judgments of experts for use in developing forecasts


  • Interaction among groups are based on the characteristics of the interacting groups, the organizational context within which the groups operate, and the task and situational bases of the interactions

  • Five factors that determine the nature of group interactions are;

    • Location

    • Resources

    • Time and goal interdependence

    • Task uncertainty

    • Task interdependence

Intergroup Dynamics


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