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Scope statement

Scope Statement

  • The participant will gain an appreciation for the vulnerability of U.S. agriculture to animal disease threats, be introduced to the factors that trigger response efforts, and understand the important role of responders in an agricultural emergency and gain appreciation for the role of unified command. This lesson will also address continuity of business and issues of traumatic stress.

Terminal learning objective

Terminal Learning Objective

  • Review the elements of an animal disease emergency and understand the critical role of responders.

Enabling learning objectives

Enabling Learning Objectives

1-1Define agriculture emergency and recognize vulnerabilities of agriculture systems.

1-2Identify the various groups, authorities, and jurisdictions that will play major roles in a foreign animal disease event.

1-3Identify the steps to determine the presence of disease, process of diagnostics and surveillance, and the need for deployment of personnel.

1-4Discuss the importance of continuity of business planning within a control zone.

1-5Define traumatic stress as it relates to a foreign animal disease response.

What is an agriculture emergency

What is an Agriculture Emergency?

  • Any event that jeopardizes the economic stability of any portion or segment of the agriculture or agribusiness industry.

    • Pre and Post Harvest

      • Naturally occurring

      • Intentional introduction

    • CBRNE

Understanding the targets

Understanding the Targets

  • Transportation systems

  • Water supplies

  • Grain elevators

  • Producers, farmers, farm workers

  • Restaurants and food handlers

  • Grocery stores

  • Food and agriculture research labs

  • Packing and processing facilities

Introduction of disease

Introduction of Disease

Unintentional threats

  • Natural

    • Point of origin is unknown

    • West Nile, Chronic Wasting Disease

  • Accidental

    • Known point of origin

      • Contamination of feed

      • Improper processing

  • Introduction of disease1

    Introduction of Disease

    Intentional introduction

    • Criminal

    • Act of Terrorism (AgroTerrorism)

    • Targets economy



    • Geographical dispersion and concentration

    • Comingled products from many sources

    • Consolidation of agribusinesses

    • Extensive movement of animals

    • Inadequate biosecurity



    • rapidly spread

    • spread facilitated by wildlife or humans

    • difficult to kill and persist in environment

    • difficult to trace, go undetected for long periods

    • global sources exist and easily accessible

    Animal diseases make good terrorism agents



    • Motivation

    • Opportunity

    • Technical Ability

    • Goal

    • Willingness to utilize biological weapons

    Transmissible animal diseases

    Transmissible Animal Diseases


    • Transmitted from animals to humans

    • Represent source of emerging infectious disease

    • Avian Influenza

    • Brucellosis

    • Tularemia

    • Rabies

    • Lassa fever

    • Listeriosis

    • West Nile virus

    • Trichinosis

    • Swine Flu

    • Lyme Disease

    • Vesicular stomatitis

    Transmissible animal diseases1

    Transmissible Animal Diseases

    • Direct contact

    • Drinking water containing parasites

    • Eating raw or contaminated animal products

    • Insect vectors

    • Primates

    • Cats

    • Dogs

    • Pigs

    • Horses

    • Cattle

    • Rodents

    • Rabbits

    • Bats

    Zoonotic diseases can spread through:

    Transmissible animal diseases2

    Transmissible Animal Diseases


    • Non-infectious to humans

    • Humans may still transmit

    • Foot and mouth disease

    • African swine fever

    • Rinderpest

    • Hog cholera

    • Vesicular exanthema

    • Bovine Pleuropneumonia

    Routes of transmission

    Routes of Transmission

    • Direct Contact

    • Ingestion

    • Airborne

    • Fomites

    • Vectors

    Laboratory diagnostics and disease surveillance

    Laboratory Diagnostics and Disease Surveillance


    • Requires organism isolation in lab

    • Poultry

      • tracheal or cloacal swab

    • Livestock

      • blood or secretions

        Laboratory Confirmation

    • Only federal lab can confirm

    • Plum Island (FMD)

    • NVSL (Avian Influenza)

    Laboratory diagnostics and disease surveillance1

    Laboratory Diagnostics and Disease Surveillance


    • USDA both domestic and international roles

    • Domestic prevention efforts

    • Collaboration with USAID and HHS for avian influenza H5 and H7

    Vaccination in an animal disease outbreak

    Vaccination in an Animal Disease Outbreak

    • Dependent upon state and federal epidemiological assessment and managed by USDA/APHIS

    Vaccination assessment

    Vaccination Assessment

    • Probability of disease containment

    • Proximity of high value animal agriculture

    • Threat to valuable, rare or endangered nondomestic species

    • Density of animals at risk

    • Extent to which wildlife is involved

    • Availability of staff to carry out vaccination efforts

    • Public opinion

    • Potential for zoonotic infection

    • Impact on export markets

    • Economic impact of failing to control the disease

    National veterinary stockpile

    National Veterinary Stockpile

    • Provides equipment, field tests, vaccines and other support services that states need in response to an animal disease outbreak.

    Animal health response agencies

    Animal Health Response Agencies

    • Informs governments about diseases worldwide and recommends means of control

    • Coordinates international disease surveillance and control

    • Coordinates regulations for international trade in animals and animal products

    Animal health response agencies1

    Animal Health Response Agencies

    Protect and promote the growth of U.S. agriculture

    • Addresses animal and plant disease events

      • Border inspections

      • Animal import testing

      • Training for foreign animal disease detection

    • Protect, detect, contain, control disease

      • Wildlife Services

      • NAHERC

      • FADD

      • AVIC

    State animal health response agencies

    State Animal Health Response Agencies

    • State Veterinarian

    • Foreign Animal Disease Diagnosticians (FADD)

    Department of Agriculture or Board of Animal Health

    • Oversight of animal health related activities

    • Surveillance

      • Quarantine

    • Movement permits

    • Disease investigation

    • Licensing or registration

    Integrated response

    Integrated Response

    ICS/Unified Command

    • Overall management of incident

    • Directs activities

    • Releases resources

    • Implementation of strategies

    Ics structure

    ICS Structure

    Reaching a diagnosis

    Reaching a Diagnosis

    • Local producer or veterinarian notices problem

    • Notification of state or federal animal health authorities

    • Field sample collection by a Foreign Animal Disease Diagnostician (FADD)

    • Diagnosis confirmed by a federal laboratory

      • Plum Island for Foot and Mouth disease

      • NVSL for Avian Influenzas

    • National Animal Health Laboratory Network (NAHLN)

      • Responds to overflow and additional confirmations

    Case classification

    Case Classification

    • Suspect

      • Animals with clinical signs of disease

    • Presumptive Positive

      • Animals with clinical signs and positive initial testing

      • Quarantine of premises, surveillance and biosecurity measures will be implemented immediately

    Case classification1

    Case Classification

    • Confirmed Positive

      • Animals with clinical signs and isolation and identification at a USDA laboratory

        • FADDL – Plum Island

        • NVSL – Ames, Iowa

    Economic impact

    Economic Impact

    • Production losses

    • Overall response effort costs

    • Loss of animals and genetics

    • Loss of international trade, exporting barriers

    Economic impact1

    Economic Impact

    • Lost income for farmers, producers

    • Movement restrictions impacting tourism, hunting

    • Higher prices for consumer commodities

    • Economic losses to local businesses via reduction in consumer spending

    What is continuity of business

    What is Continuity of Business?

    • Goal of eradicating disease may be contrary to continuity of operations on nearby farms

    • Return to business-as-usual will prove to be challenging

    • Some priorities may be resolved prior to outbreak

      • Raise awareness

      • Establish policies

      • Develop plans

      • Identify resources

    Stress factors

    Stress Factors

    • Individuals may feel overwhelmed and suffer deficits in:

      • Cognitive abilities

      • Emotional stability

      • Physical well-being

      • Spiritual functioning

      • Relationships

    What steps can help manage stress

    What Steps Can Help Manage Stress?

    • Self examination

    • Mental attitude of self care

    • Knowing what types of incidents and sensory experiences trigger emotional response

      • Smells

      • Sounds

      • Sights

      • Feelings



    • Our agriculture system is vulnerable to animal disease.

    • Many groups participate in response to an agriculture emergency.

    • Important to understand the steps necessary to determine the presence of disease.

    • Continuity of business is essential to maintain.

    • Economic and emotional stress imposed on producers and communities.

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