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INDUSTRIALIZATION IN RUSSIA. French Revolution had three effects on Russia:. Determination to avoid revolution Western policies as model for Russia faded Community and stability became more important. SO Russia welcomed Western cultural but not political ideas. Decembrist Uprising.

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INDUSTRIALIZATION IN RUSSIA

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INDUSTRIALIZATION IN RUSSIA


French Revolution had three effects on Russia:

  • Determination to avoid revolution

  • Western policies as model for Russia faded

  • Community and stability became more important.

    SO

  • Russia welcomed Western cultural but not political ideas.


Decembrist Uprising

1825 revolt of Western-oriented army officers.


Economic and Social Problems

  • Lagged behind in industrialization

  • Improved production by tightening labor obligations of serfs

  • Some Western style factories opened but no significant change

  • In sum: agricultural, serf-dependent, stagnant


Russia Abroad

  • 1812: Napoleonic Wars resulted in concerns about defense.

  • 1815: Russia sponsored Holy Alliance with Prussia and Austria to defend religion and established order.

  • 1830-31: Suppressed Polish uprising in opposition to Russian rule

  • 1830s: Continued pressure on Ottoman Empire

  • 1849: Intervened to help Austria put down nationalist revolt in Hungary


Crimean War

  • Russia vs. France, Britain, Ottomans

  • Tsar Nicholas I claimed Russia responsible for protecting Christian interests in Holy Land, but France and Britain sided with Ottomans.

  • Russia lost.


Emancipation of the Serfs (1861)


Reforms under Alexander II

  • New law codes (fairer to peasants)

  • Creation of local political councils, zemstvoes

  • Army: meritocratic promotion, extensive recruitment, skills training

  • Improvements in education

  • Women had better access to higher education, the professions

  • Built trans-Siberian railroad

  • High tariffs to promote Russian industry, improved banking, encouraged Western investment


Road to Revolution

  • Nationalism  minority agitation

  • Famines  peasant uprisings, resentment of redemption payments

  • Strands of movement for change:

    • Professionals sought greater political voice, press freedoms

    • Radical Intelligentsia sought political freedoms, social reform but not Western materialism

    • Anarchists: opposed Tsarist regimes altogether


Alexander II

  • Late 1870s, Alexander II scaled back reforms, imposed censorship, exiled dissidents.

  • Assassinated in 1881.

  • As a result of his death:

    • Set back for reforms

    • Anti-Jewish pogroms

    • Suppression of civil liberties

    • “Propaganda by deed”


Marxism

  • “From each according to his ability to each according to his need.”

  • 1818-1883

  • Born in Prussia to Jewish, middle class parents.

  • In school, more concerned with drinking than studying.

  • Most famous for Communist Manifesto andDas Kapital


Marxism

  • Pioneered by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels

  • All societies progress through class struggle.

  • Called capitalism “dictatorship of bourgeoisie”

  • Inevitably produce tensions  socialism

  • Under socialism, society run by proletariat

  • This would inevitably be replaced by pure, classless society: communism


Marxism in Action

  • China: Maoism. Communism coupled with iconoclasm and extreme nationalism.

  • Marxism-Leninism: Seeks to purge anything bourgeois, idealist, or religious and seeks to create totalitarian state.


Vladimir Lenin

  • 1870-1921

  • Parents were a schoolteacher and government education official. Noble background.

  • Members of the intelligentsia, Lenin’s parents taught their children to struggle for higher ideas, a free society, and equal rights.


Radicalization of Lenin

  • January 1886: father died of brain hemorrhage

  • May 1887: Brother hanged for assassination attempt on Tsar Alexander III

  • His sister, arrested with his brother, was exiled.


  • Studied law at Kazan University but more interested in Marxism.

  • In 1895 arrested for plotting against Alexander III and exiled to Siberia.

  • Thereafter he left Russia for Western Europe.

  • Returns to Russia for Revolution of 1905


Made Marxism more Russian

  • Argued because of spread of capitalism proletarian class has developed worldwide in advance of industrialization, so a proletarian revolution is possible without distinct middle class phase.

  • Believed in disciplined revolutionary cells to maintain doctrinal purity and effective action even under police repression.

  • Motivated Bolsheviks


Marxism-Leninism

  • Almost all property owned by state

  • Economy controlled by the state

  • Provision of basic social services

  • Emancipation of women

  • Liberal divorce and abortion policies initially

  • “New Man” – class conscious, knowledgeable, heroic proletarian devoted to work and collectivism

  • Opposes colonialism and imperialism


Revolution of 1905

  • Working class unrest grew more radical than in West because:

    • Absence of legal political outlets

    • Rural unrest

    • Severe conditions of early industrialization

  • Russia tried to divert attention abroad with:

    • Wars in 1870s with Ottomans. Small gains but always pushed back by Britain and France

    • Helped Serbia and Bulgaria gain independence from Ottomans; some dreamed of pan-Slavic nation under Russia

    • Russia wanted MORE. Problematic because

      • Over-extension

      • Military couldn’t back up aspirations


Russo-Japanese War (1905)

  • Japan worried about Russian expansion in China and Russian influence in Korea.

  • Japan won because Russia could not move fleet to Pacific quickly enough.

  • Japan used this opportunity to move into Korea. This would lead to shift in power.

  • Unexpected defeat in Russo-Japanese war unleashed massive protests in the Russian Revolution of 1905


Russian Revolution of 1905

  • Police repression  further urban infuriation

  • Tsar recognized the need for change, so he:

    • Created duma (parliament)

    • Stolypin Reforms which gave peasants greater freedom from redemption payments and village controls, could buy and sell land more freely

    • GOAL: market-oriented peasantry

    • Result: unrest died down and aggressive entrepreneurial farmers, kulaks, emerged


BUT

  • Some workers’ rights were withdrawn  new strikes, underground activities.

  • Duma was gradually stripped of power.

  • Police repression resumed.

  • To detract attention, turned again to Ottoman Empire and Balkans.

  • Gained little but determination to back Slavic allies helped lead to WWI.


Russia and Eastern Europe

  • Pattern in Russia paralleled in smaller eastern European states including Hungary, Romania, Serbia, Bulgaria and Greece.

  • Established parliaments but restricted parliamentary powers and voting rights.

  • Some established monarchies where kings ruled without many limits on power.

  • Industrialized less extensively than Russia. Mostly agricultural, dependent on western markets.


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