The elements and principles of design
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The Elements and Principles of Design. The Elements of Design. Line, shape & form, texture, space, colour and value are the Elements of Design. The artist uses the elements together to send a visual message. They help to depict the subject matter in a way that expresses the artist’s meaning.

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The Elements and Principles of Design

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The Elements and Principles of Design


The Elements of Design

  • Line, shape & form, texture, space, colour and value are the Elements of Design.

  • The artist uses the elements together to send a visual message. They help to depict the subject matter in a way that expresses the artist’s meaning.


LINE

  • -begins with a dot and creates a path as it moves-can represent different moods


SHAPE

  • -a line that begins and ends at the same point

  • -2-D only (height and width)

organic

geometric


FORM

  • -3-D (height, width, and depth)

  • -enclosed mass or volume

  • -important for sculptures

organic

geometric


TEXTURE

  • Real:the feel of an object’s surface – experienced by touch

  • Ex. Sandpaper, leather, tree bark, cotton balls, etc.

  • Simulated: surface has the appearance of being textured but in reality it is smooth – created through the use of colour and value


SPACE: PERSPECTIVE

  • the distance between two points, the illusion of depth

SizeOverlapPlacement

-small = far away-object being blocked-high = far

-large = close uplooks farther away-low = close


ATMOSPHERIC PERSPECTIVE

  • creating illusion of distance by representing objects further away with less clarity of contour and diminished in colour


LINEAR PERSPECTIVE

  • all parallel lines receding into the distance are drawn to one or more imaginary vanishing points on the horizon.


Converging Lines


COLOUR

  • Hue: name of colour “red”

  • Value: dark or light quality of a colour

  • Intensity: brightness/dullness of a colour

  • Primary: red, yellow, blue

  • Secondary: green, orange, purple

  • Intermediate (tertiary): made by mixing one primary and one Secondary (ex. Blue-green)


COLOUR

  • Complementary: colours opposite on the colour wheel – red/green, blue/orange, yellow/purple

  • Analogous: colours next to each other on the colour wheel (ex. Red, red-orange, orange)

  • Warm/Cool: warm (red, orange, yellow) colours come forward, cool (blue, green, purple) colours move backward

  • Monochromatic: different values of the same colour (ex. Light blue, blue, dark blue)


MONOCHROMATIC COLOURS


ANALOGOUS COLOURS


COMPLEMENTARY COLOURS


WARM AND COOL COLOURS


COLOUR WHEEL


VALUE

  • dark or light quality of a colour – to lighten, mix with white, to darken, mix with black.

  • the stronger the contrast, the more dramatic the work

  • light values = high keyed, dark values = low keyed

HIGH KEY

LOW KEY


THE PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN

  • The Principles of Design describe the general ways in which artists arrange the parts of their compositions. These organizers are balance, unity, dominance, variety, pattern, movement and rhythm.


BALANCE

  • Refers to a way of combining elements to add a feeling of equilibrium or stability to a work of art.


BALANCE

Symmetrical – formal, simplest kind,

-designs with two identical halves

Asymmetrical – informal – not the same

on both sides

-large objects are balanced by smaller objects

Radial – organized around a central point

-occurs when objects are positioned around

a centre point (ex. Bike wheel, flower, etc)


DOMINANCE (OR EMPHASIS)

  • -using opposing sizes, shapes, colours or other elements to place greater attention on certain areas or shapes

  • -other details will appear less important, but still add to the work of art.


MOVEMENT

  • -used to create the look and feeling of action and to guide the viewer’s eye throughout the work of art.


RHYTHM (OR REPETITION)

  • -closely related to movement.

  • The placement of repeated elements in a work create a visual tempo or beat.


PATTERN

  • -combinations of lines, colours, and shapes used in repeated shapes (like wallpaper)


VARIETY (OR CONTRAST)

  • -difference in values, colours, textures and other elements in an artwork to achieve emphasis and interest (the opposite of repetition)


UNITY (OR HARMONY)

  • -sense of oneness or wholeness. A single theme using all elements in one pleasing design.

  • -like musical instruments in an orchestra


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