The elements and principles of design
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The Elements and Principles of Design. The Elements of Design. Line, shape & form, texture, space, colour and value are the Elements of Design. The artist uses the elements together to send a visual message. They help to depict the subject matter in a way that expresses the artist’s meaning.

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The Elements and Principles of Design

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The elements and principles of design

The Elements and Principles of Design


The elements of design

The Elements of Design

  • Line, shape & form, texture, space, colour and value are the Elements of Design.

  • The artist uses the elements together to send a visual message. They help to depict the subject matter in a way that expresses the artist’s meaning.


The elements and principles of design

LINE

  • -begins with a dot and creates a path as it moves-can represent different moods


Shape

SHAPE

  • -a line that begins and ends at the same point

  • -2-D only (height and width)

organic

geometric


The elements and principles of design

FORM

  • -3-D (height, width, and depth)

  • -enclosed mass or volume

  • -important for sculptures

organic

geometric


Texture

TEXTURE

  • Real:the feel of an object’s surface – experienced by touch

  • Ex. Sandpaper, leather, tree bark, cotton balls, etc.

  • Simulated: surface has the appearance of being textured but in reality it is smooth – created through the use of colour and value


Space perspective

SPACE: PERSPECTIVE

  • the distance between two points, the illusion of depth

SizeOverlapPlacement

-small = far away-object being blocked-high = far

-large = close uplooks farther away-low = close


Atmospheric perspective

ATMOSPHERIC PERSPECTIVE

  • creating illusion of distance by representing objects further away with less clarity of contour and diminished in colour


Linear perspective

LINEAR PERSPECTIVE

  • all parallel lines receding into the distance are drawn to one or more imaginary vanishing points on the horizon.


Converging lines

Converging Lines


Colour

COLOUR

  • Hue: name of colour “red”

  • Value: dark or light quality of a colour

  • Intensity: brightness/dullness of a colour

  • Primary: red, yellow, blue

  • Secondary: green, orange, purple

  • Intermediate (tertiary): made by mixing one primary and one Secondary (ex. Blue-green)


Colour1

COLOUR

  • Complementary: colours opposite on the colour wheel – red/green, blue/orange, yellow/purple

  • Analogous: colours next to each other on the colour wheel (ex. Red, red-orange, orange)

  • Warm/Cool: warm (red, orange, yellow) colours come forward, cool (blue, green, purple) colours move backward

  • Monochromatic: different values of the same colour (ex. Light blue, blue, dark blue)


Monochromatic colours

MONOCHROMATIC COLOURS


Analogous colours

ANALOGOUS COLOURS


Complementary colours

COMPLEMENTARY COLOURS


Warm and cool colours

WARM AND COOL COLOURS


Colour wheel

COLOUR WHEEL


Value

VALUE

  • dark or light quality of a colour – to lighten, mix with white, to darken, mix with black.

  • the stronger the contrast, the more dramatic the work

  • light values = high keyed, dark values = low keyed

HIGH KEY

LOW KEY


The principles of design

THE PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN

  • The Principles of Design describe the general ways in which artists arrange the parts of their compositions. These organizers are balance, unity, dominance, variety, pattern, movement and rhythm.


Balance

BALANCE

  • Refers to a way of combining elements to add a feeling of equilibrium or stability to a work of art.


Balance1

BALANCE

Symmetrical – formal, simplest kind,

-designs with two identical halves

Asymmetrical – informal – not the same

on both sides

-large objects are balanced by smaller objects

Radial – organized around a central point

-occurs when objects are positioned around

a centre point (ex. Bike wheel, flower, etc)


Dominance or emphasis

DOMINANCE (OR EMPHASIS)

  • -using opposing sizes, shapes, colours or other elements to place greater attention on certain areas or shapes

  • -other details will appear less important, but still add to the work of art.


Movement

MOVEMENT

  • -used to create the look and feeling of action and to guide the viewer’s eye throughout the work of art.


Rhythm or repetition

RHYTHM (OR REPETITION)

  • -closely related to movement.

  • The placement of repeated elements in a work create a visual tempo or beat.


Pattern

PATTERN

  • -combinations of lines, colours, and shapes used in repeated shapes (like wallpaper)


Variety or contrast

VARIETY (OR CONTRAST)

  • -difference in values, colours, textures and other elements in an artwork to achieve emphasis and interest (the opposite of repetition)


Unity or harmony

UNITY (OR HARMONY)

  • -sense of oneness or wholeness. A single theme using all elements in one pleasing design.

  • -like musical instruments in an orchestra


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