Periodic Table Trends

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# Periodic Table Trends - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Periodic Table Trends. Atomic Radius. Half the distance between the nuclei of two identical atoms bonded together. Atomic Radius. Atomic Radius. Across a Period= DECREASES As you add more protons, the attractive force of the nucleus increases, pulling electrons in more closely

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### Periodic Table Trends

• Half the distance between the nuclei of two identical atoms bonded together
• Across a Period= DECREASES
• As you add more protons, the attractive force of the nucleus increases, pulling electrons in more closely
• Down a Group=INCREASES
• As you add more energy levels, the size of the electron cloud increases
Which of the elements would have the largest radius?
• 13-Aluminum
• 14-Silicon
• 17-Chlorine
• 12- Magnesium
• 16-Sulfur
Ionization Energy
• The energy required to remove one electron from a neutral atom.
• High I.E. – Harder to lose

electrons

• Low I.E. –Easier to lose

electrons

Ionization Energy
• Across a Period=INCREASES
• Electrons are closer to nucleus, therefore harder to remove
• Down a Group=DECREASES
• Electrons are farther from the nucleus, therefore easier to remove
Which element would have the lowest ionization energy?
• 20- Calcium
• 56- Barium
• 4- Beryllium
• 38- Strontium
• 12-Magnesium
Electron Affinity
• The energy released when a neutral atom acquires an electron.
• Elements that really want another electron tend to release more energy (higher E.A.)

Across a period= INCREASES

Down a group= DECREASES

Electronegativity
• The ability of an atom to attract electrons
• The most electronegative element is fluorine

Across a Period= INCREASES

Down a Group= DECREASES

Which of the elements would have the highest electronegativity?
• 13-Aluminum
• 14-Silicon
• 17-Chlorine
• 12- Magnesium
• 16-Sulfur
METALS vs NONMETALS
• METALLIC CHARACTER
• Lower I.E. (tend to lose e-)
• Lower E.N. (don’t want e-)
• High Luster (shiny!)
• Good Conductors
• Malleable and Ductile
• MOST METALLIC ELEMENT:
• NONMETALLIC CHARACTER
• High I.E. (don’t want to lose e-)
• High E.N. (tend to gain e-)
• Dull (no luster)
• Poor Conductors
• Brittle as solids
• MOST NONMETALLIC ELEMENT:

Francium

Fluorine

Which of the elements would be the least reactive metal?
• 13-Aluminum
• 14-Silicon
• 17-Chlorine
• 12- Magnesium
• 16-Sulfur
Which of the elements would be the most reactive nonmetal?
• 13-Aluminum
• 14-Silicon
• 17-Chlorine
• 12- Magnesium
• 16-Sulfur
37-Rubidium would have all of the following characteristics except?
• High Conductivity
• High Malleability
• High Brittleness
• Solid at Room Temperature
• 1 Valence Electron
35-Bromine would have which one of the following characteristics?
• High Conductivity
• High Malleability
• High Brittleness
• Solid at Room Temperature
• 7 Valence Electrons