Periodic table trends
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Periodic Table & Trends . Objective: To understand the physical and chemical properties of atoms based on their position on the Periodic Table NC Essential Standards 1.3 What does “periodic” mean? . The Pattern is the Key. Put the following into a pattern 3 across 4 down

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Periodic Table & Trends

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Periodic Table & Trends

  • Objective: To understand the physical and chemical properties of atoms based on their position on the Periodic Table

  • NC Essential Standards 1.3

  • What does “periodic” mean?


The Pattern is the Key

Put the following into a pattern

3 across

4 down

Bluebird, green hummingbird, red cardinal, pink flamingo

Pink freight truck, Red pick-up truck, green Civic, Blue SUV

Green cottage, Blue house, Red brick apartment building, Dilworth’s pink glass building


A Chemist’s Most Useful ToolHow can we use the Periodic Tableto understand the properties of elements?


Periodic Table

  • http://ed.ted.com/lessons/the-genius-of-mendeleev-s-periodic-table-lou-serico

  • Also see Review & Dig Deeper on webpage


Electron Arrangement impacts the shape of the Periodic Table

  • Periods

  • Groups

  • Blocks


Elements are arranged in Periods (_____) according to the total number of _________ _________ for their electrons.

b. The Periodic Table can be divided into 4 blocks based on electron configurations for the elements.

Groups Val electrons

Block S

Block P

Block D

Block F


Valence e-

Electron dot

1 18

Periods

Representative elements are elements in groups 1 & 2; 13-18. These valence

electrons are in the _____ and _____ & ________ sublevels.


S, P, D, F Blocks

Periods

18


Understanding of Metals vs. Non-metals

  • Examples Metals Non-metals

  • Properties

    • Physical

    • Chemical

What do you already know? – Sort terms


Understanding metals vs. non-metalsvideo segment

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2xFx7Ipaf8U

    • Science film segment

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lQap3cRnP28

    • YouTube – reactivity – based on position on PT

      • Clips showing reactivity

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EYOunr2Lwxs

    • Slides – good pictures but no sound


Understanding Metals vs. Non-metalsPhysical Properties

  • Black Study Guide

    • Metals: p. 47

    • Non-metals: p. 50

Sort terms for metals vs. non-metals


Physical

& Chemical

Properties

1 18


Elements: Basic Building Blocks

  • Hunting for Elements – (intro – 4 minutes)

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-bENV1arP0g

  • 2 hours

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Hd6vB82oiQ0


Element Song

  • http://www.edu-cyberpg.com/IEC/elementsong.html

  • Educational CyberPlayGround ®: K-12 Interdisciplinary Curriculum


Element Groups

  • Elements are arranged in groups (____________) according to the number of their ___________ _____________

  • Definition:

  • Elements in the same group have _________ __________ properties.


Groups: Similar chemical properties

  • Video segment


Group Names: describe their properties

Hydrogen is unique!

Groups important to know:

1 2 Groups 3 - 12 14,15,16,17,18


Representative (main group) elements are:


Elements: Basic Building Blocks

  • Hunting for Elements – (intro – 4 minutes)

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-bENV1arP0g

  • 2 hours

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Hd6vB82oiQ0


Element Groups & Properties


Ordering Elements by Properties

Follow the instructions on the small card

Arrange the elements based on properties

Put elements into columns and rows in a pattern

Use physical and chemical properties

Why did you put an element card at the top of a column?

Why should another be placed lower or to the right?


Results?

Analyze your results:

Make a table that shows the order of your elements (see next slide)

Show the patterns for the properties

Physical properties - explain the pattern for each physical property

Chemical properties – explain the pattern


Ordering Groups of Elements by Properties


Ion Practice

  • Ion Formation base on electron configuration

    • Metal or non-metal?

    • Compare atom & ion

      • Electron configuration and Electron Dot Notation

  • Additional practice

    • Using Lewis Diagrams


Representing Ions

  • Ions are formed when the __________ electrons are lost or gained.

  • Metals ________ valence electrons to form

    _______ ions, called __________.

    Non-metals _______ valence electrons until they have 8 and form _______ ions, called

    __________.


Comparing atoms & ions


Comparing atoms & ions


Atoms & Ions


Atoms & Ions


How do metal atoms lose electrons? Ionization energy

Ground State, Excited State, Ionization energy

Lithium


How do non-metal atoms gain electrons? Electronegativity

Large metal atom Small non-metal atom


Forming Compounds

  • They come together to form a ______________ ______________ .

  • Many formula units are held together to make an _______ compound.


Periodic Trend Animation

  • http://faculty.ucc.edu/chemistry-pankuch/Amin.html

  • Atomic size

  • Ionic size

  • Ionization

  • Electronegativity

  • For later used: bond formation


Trends for Ionization Energy & ElectronegativityArrows to show trends for metals & non-metals

1 18

Reactivity: trends for metals and non-metals


6. Octet Rule

Atoms tend to ______, ______, or _______

electrons in order to have _____ valence electrons.

_______ valence electrons gives stability.

Exception:

Duet rule:


7. Reactivity

Group 18 (called the _______________) are ____________ (also called ________ or _____________), because:

Group 1 (called ____________) are the most reactive metals because:

Group 17 (called ___________) are the

most reactive nonmetals because:


Trends for Ionization Energy & ElectronegativityArrows to show trends for metals & non-metals

1 18

Reactivity: trends for metals and non-metals


Predicting Properties of Elements

- based on the position on the Periodic Table : Size; IE; EN

Property: which element has the largest value?

Ca vs. BrC vs. SnF vs. I Si vs. Cl

Na vs. P Li vs. K

Be vs. OS vs. Ar

Al vs. SNe vs. Kr

B vs. Al B vs. Ne


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