Periodic Table Trends. Atomic Radius. As you move down a group, atomic radius increases
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The number of energy levels increases as you move down a group as the number of electrons increases. Each subsequent energy level is further from the nucleus than the last. Therefore, the atomic radius increases as the group and energy levels increase
As you move across a period, atomic radius decreases
As you go across a period, electrons are added to the same energy level. At the same time, protons are being added to the nucleus. The concentration of more protons in the nucleus creates a "higher effective nuclear charge." In other words, there is a stronger force of attraction pulling the electrons closer to the nucleus resulting in a smaller atomic radius.
The energy required to remove the outermost (highest energy) electron from a neutral atom in its ground state
As you move down a group, first ionization energy decreases
Electrons are further from the nucleus and thus easier to remove the outermost one. "SHIELDING" - Inner electrons at lower energy levels essentially block the protons' force of attraction toward the nucleus. It therefore becomes easier to remove the outer electron
As you move across a period, first ionization energy increases
As you move across a period, the atomic radius decreases, that is, the atom is smaller. The outer electrons are closer to the nucleus and more strongly attracted to the center. Therefore, it becomes more difficult to remove the outermost electron
Electronegativity measures an atom's strength to attract and form bonds with electrons
As you move to the right across a period of elements, electronegativity increases
When the valence shell of an atom is less than half full it is easier to lose an electron. Conversely, when the valence shell is more than half full, it is easier to pull an electron into the valence shell than to donate one.