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Spinal Cord Organization. January 9, 2008. Spinal Cord 31 segments terminates at L1-L2 special components - conus medularis - cauda equina no input from the face. Spinal Cord, Roots & Nerves. Dorsal root. Ventral root. Spinal nerve. Dorsal Root Ganglion.

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Spinal Cord Organization

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Spinal cord organization l.jpg

Spinal Cord Organization

January 9, 2008


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Spinal Cord 31 segments terminates at L1-L2 special components - conus medularis - cauda equina no input from the face


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Spinal Cord, Roots & Nerves

Dorsal root

Ventral root

Spinal nerve


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Dorsal Root Ganglion

Cell bodies of 1st order sensory neurons

Afferent


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Spinal Cord Cross Section

Dorsal root

sensory

afferent

motor

efferent

Ventral root


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Cross Section of Spinal Cord

White matter

peripheral

Gray matter

central

Central canal


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Volume of Gray & White Matter

Gray matter enlarges at cervical and lumbar regions.

White matter increases at higher levels of the cord.


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Central Gray Matter

Motor neurons

2nd order sensory neurons

Interneurons

Glial cells

Motor neuron = lower motor neuron

= anterior horn cell

= second order motor neuron


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Organization of Gray Matter

Pain

Temperature


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Organization of Gray Matter

Position sense

Vibration

Pressure

Touch


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Organization of Gray Matter

Position sense

from legs

Between T1 and L2 enlarged

Dorsal nucleus of Clarke

2nd order sensory neuron going to cerebellum

Neck & base of Posterior Horn


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Organization of Gray Matter

Interomedio-lateral horn

Between T1 and L2 enlarged

Sympathetic neurons

(preganglionic)

Intermediolateral Horn


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Sympathetic Innervation


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Organization of Gray Matter

.

At S2, S3, and S4

Parasympathetic neurons

(preganglionic)

Intermediolateral Horn


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Parasympathetic Innervation


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Organization of Gray Matter

Modulates motor activity via gamma motor neurons

Adjusts briskness of deep tendon reflexes


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Organization of Gray Matter

Nuclei of alpha and gamma motor neurons

Innervates muscle spindles and muscles


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Lower Motor Neurons

Alpha motor neurons

originate from Rexed lamina IX

ventral – dorsal organization

ventral  extensor muscles

dorsal  flexor muscles

medial – lateral organization

medial  proximal muscles

lateral  distal muscles


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Somatotopic Organization


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Coordinating Role of Interneurons


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Breathing

Nuclei of alpha and gamma motor neurons

LMNs from spinal levels C3, C4 & C5 innervate the phrenic nerve

Controls diaphragm


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Control Functions

Nuclei of alpha and gamma motor neurons

At levels S1 - S4 LMNs form Onuf’s nucleus

Innervates anal and urethral spincters; needed for sexual function


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Sacral cord


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Configuration of Gray Matter

Abundant white matter high in the spinal cord

Enlargement of gray matter at the cervical level

Innervates arm muscles


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Configuration of Gray Matter

Enlargement in thoracic region for sympathetic neurons

Enlargement in lumbar region for motor neurons to the legs

Minimal white matter at the lower cord


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Descending Motor Pathway

Upper motor neuron

1st order neuron

synapses on LMN

Crossed pathway

Lateral corticospinal

Uncrossed pathway

Anterior corticospinal


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Somatotopic Organization


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Spinal Cord Tracts

Unconscious position sense

movement

feedback


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↑ Sensory

Gracile tract

Leg position & vibration

Cuneate tract

Arm position & vibration

Dorsal spinocerebellar tract

Strength & muscle speed

Ventral spinocerebellar tract

Modulation; interneurons

Lateral spinothalamic tract

Pain & temperature

Anterior spinothalamic tract

Light touch

Spinocervical thalamic tract

Kinesthetic movement & discriminative touch

↓Motor

Corticospinal tract

Speed & agility

Reticulospinal tract

Differential facilitation of motor neurons

Rubrospinal tract

Fix movement errors

Lateral vestibulospinal tract

Extensor & posture

Medial vestibulospinal tract

Flexor & head position

Tectospinal tract

Head turning

Ascending & Descending Tracts


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Ascending Tracts

Sensory

Position Vibration

Sensory

Pain Temperature


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Spinal Cord Injury

Position

Pain

Brown – Sequard Syndrome


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Transverse vs Hemi Cord Syndrome


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Anterior vs Posterior Cord Syndromes


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Blood Supply to Spinal Cord


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Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury

DUI: $100 addt’l fine

South Carolina

Spinal Cord Injury

Research Board


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Monday

Brainstem


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