Lesson 15 heat exchangers
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Lesson 15 Heat Exchangers . DESCRIBE the difference in the temperature profiles for counter-flow and parallel flow heat exchangers. DESCRIBE the differences between regenerative and non-regenerative heat exchangers.

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Lesson 15 Heat Exchangers

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Lesson 15 heat exchangers

Lesson 15Heat Exchangers

  • DESCRIBE the difference in the temperature profiles for counter-flow and parallel flow heat exchangers.

  • DESCRIBE the differences between regenerative and non-regenerative heat exchangers.

  • Given the temperature changes across a heat exchanger, CALCULATE the log mean temperature difference for the heat exchanger.

  • Given the formulas for calculating the conduction and convection heat transfer coefficients, CALCULATE the overall heat transfer coefficient of a system.


Heat exchangers

Heat Exchangers

  • Transfers thermal energy between fluids

  • Common applications include boilers, fan coolers, cooling water heat exchangers, and condensers.

  • Classifications

    • Ordinary heat exchanger

      • Single-phase

        • Both of the fluids (cooled and heated) remain in their initial gaseous or liquid states

        • Usually of the tube-and-shell type

      • Two-phase

        • Either of the fluids may change its phase during the heat exchange process

        • Includes steam generator and main condenser of nuclear facilities

    • Regenerators

    • Cooling towers


Heat exchanger components

Heat Exchanger Components

  • Shell

  • Tubes

  • Relief Valves

  • Vacuum Breakers


Typical tube and shell heat exchanger

Typical Tube and Shell Heat Exchanger


Parallel and counter flow designs

Parallel and Counter-Flow Designs

  • Heat exchangers modes of operation and effectiveness are largely determined by the direction of the fluid flow within the exchanger.

  • Most common arrangements for flow paths

    • Counter-flow - the direction of the flow of one of the working fluids is opposite to the direction to the flow of the other fluid

    • Parallel flow. - both fluids in the heat exchanger flow in the same direction

  • More heat is transferred in a counter-flow arrangement than in a parallel flow heat exchanger.


Fluid flow directions

Fluid Flow Directions


Parallel flow design

Parallel-flow Design

  • Advantageous when two fluids are required to be brought to nearly the same temperature.

  • Disadvantages

    • Large temperature difference at the ends causes large thermal stresses.

    • The temperature of the cold fluid exiting the heat exchanger never exceeds the lowest temperature of the hot fluid.


Heat exchanger temperature profiles

Heat Exchanger Temperature Profiles


Counter flow design advantages

Counter-flow Design - Advantages

  • More uniform temperature difference between the two fluids minimizes the thermal stresses throughout the exchanger.

  • Outlet temperature of the cold fluid can approach the highest temperature of the hot fluid (the inlet temperature).

  • More uniform temperature difference produces a more uniform rate of heat transfer throughout the heat exchanger.


Parallel or counter flow

Parallel or Counter Flow

  • In both parallel or counter-flow, heat transfer within the heat exchanger involves both conduction and convection.

  • Process takes place over the entire length of the exchanger

  • Temperature of the fluids as they flow through the exchanger is not generally constant

  • Non- constant temperature causes variation in the rate of heat transfer along the length of the exchanger tubes


Non regenerative heat exchanger

Non-Regenerative Heat Exchanger

  • Non-regenerative application is the most frequent heat exchanger application

  • Involves two separate fluids.

    • One fluid cools or heats the other with no interconnection between the two fluids.

    • Heat that is removed from the hotter fluid is usually rejected


Non regenerative heat exchanger1

Non-Regenerative Heat Exchanger


Regenerative heat exchanger

Regenerative Heat Exchanger

  • Typically uses the fluid from a different area of the same system for both the hot and cold fluids.

  • The water returning to the primary system is pre-heated by the water entering the purification system.

    • Minimizes the thermal stress in the primary system piping due to the cold temperature of the purified coolant being returned to the primary system.

    • Reduces the temperature of the water entering the purification system prior to reaching the non-regenerative heat exchanger, allowing use of a smaller heat exchanger to achieve the desired temperature for purification.

  • Primary advantage of a regenerative heat exchanger application is conservation of system energy (that is, less loss of system energy due to the cooling of the fluid).

  • Can work in conjunction with non-regenerative heat exchanger

    Example : the purification system of a reactor facility. (see next slide)


Regenerative heat exchanger1

Regenerative Heat Exchanger


Heat exchanger failure mechanisms and symptoms

Heat Exchanger Failure Mechanisms and Symptoms

  • Air Binding

  • Tube Leaks

  • Heat Transfer Reduction


Cooling towers

Cooling Towers

  • Cools the water of a steam power plant

  • Steady-state process like the heat exchange in the ordinary heat exchanger.

  • Large chambers loosely filled with trays or similar wooden elements of construction.

    • Water to be cooled is:

      • pumped to the top of the tower

      • sprayed or distributed by wooden troughs.

      • falls through the tower, splashing down from deck to deck.

      • part of it evaporates into the air that passes through the tower.

    • Enthalpy needed for the evaporation is transferred to the air,

    • Air flow is either horizontal due to wind currents (cross flow) or vertically upward in counter-flow to the falling water.


Log mean temperature difference application to heat exchangers

Log Mean Temperature Difference Application To Heat Exchangers

  • To solve certain heat exchanger problems, a log mean temperature difference (LMTD or ΔTlm) must be evaluated before the heat removal from the heat exchanger is determined.

  • Example


Overall heat transfer coefficient

Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient


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