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Fungi. Chapter 31. Plantae Fungi Animalia Protista. Monera. Kingdom Fungi. About 100,000 species. Uses: medicine food Ecological value: major decomposers symbiotic relationships (N 2 fixers) Problems: some strains are deadly athletes foot destroy library books

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Fungi

Chapter 31


  • Plantae Fungi Animalia

  • Protista

Monera


Kingdom Fungi

About 100,000 species

  • Uses:

    • medicine

    • food

  • Ecological value:

    • major decomposers

    • symbiotic relationships (N2 fixers)

  • Problems:

    • some strains are deadly

    • athletes foot

    • destroy library books

    • destroy crops


Some fungi are pathogens

  • About 30% of the 100,000 known species of fungi are parasites, mostly on or in plants.

    • American elms:

      Dutch Elm Disease

  • American chestnut:

  • chestnut blight

Was once one of America's most dominant trees


Some fungi are pathogens

  • Other fungi, such as rusts and ergots, infect grain crops, causing tremendous economic losses each year.


Some fungi are pathogens

  • Curse of the Mummy


Some fungi are persistant

Athletes Foot


Kingdom Fungi

Eukaryotic, absorptive

Mostly multicellular (except few, e.g. yeast)

Heterotrophic (decomposers & parasitic)

Mycelium (body of hyphae)


Kingdom Fungi

  • Firm cell walls (generally of “chitin”)

  • “Spores” as reproductive bodies

  • Unique chromosomes and nuclei

  • Includes molds, yeasts, rusts, and mushrooms


  • hyphae - the vegetative bodies of most fungi, constructed of tiny filaments

  • mycelium -an interwoven mat of hyphae


Human hair

Fungal hypha


  • Septate hypha:

  • multicellular

  • walls divided by septa

  • Ceonocytic hypha:

  • continuous cytoplasm mass

  • multinucleate

  • no septa


Haustoria:

  • Modified hyphae found in parasitic fungi

  • Function: absorb nutrients from host

  • Some fungi even have hyphae adapted for preying on animals.


Kingdom Fungi

Division Chytridiomycota

Division Ascomycota

Division Basidiomycota

Division Zygomycota

Division Deuteromycota


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Deuteromycota

Fungus-like protist


  • The four fungal phyla can be distinguished by their reproductive features.


Division Chytridiomycota

  • mainly aquatic.

  • Some are saprobes, while others parasitize protists, plants, and animals.

  • chitinous cell wall

  • flagellated zoospores

  • the most primitive fungi


Division Zygomycota

“Zygote fungi”(bread molds)

Zygote = “mated” hyphal strands

Live in soil, water

Some are parasites

600 species


Mated hyphal strands


  • The zygosporangia are resistant to freezing and drying.

  • When conditions improve, the zygosporangia release haploid spores that colonize new substrates.

    • Pilobolus aiming its spores.


  • The zygomycete Rhizopus can reproduce either asexually or sexually.


Division Ascomycota

“Sac fungi”(truffles, yeast)

Beer > 6,000 years

Wine > 8,000 years

Lichens

Decomposers, pathogens

“yeast” describes a form of fungi (i.e., non-hyphal)

60,000 species


Division Ascomycota

Scarlet cup

Morchella

truffles


Division Ascomycota

Close up of cheese showing blue-green mycelium of Penicillium roqueforti.

Roquefort cheese


Yeast


Lichen


Lichen Anatomy


  • Ascomycetes are characterized by an extensive heterokaryotic stage during the formation of ascocarps.


Division Basidiomycota

“Club fungi”(mushrooms)

Club-shaped reproductive structure

Food

Plant diseases

25,000 species


Fairy Ring


  • The life cycle of a club fungus usually includes a long-lived dikaryotic mycelium.


Division Deuteromycota

  • “Imperfect fungi”(penicillin)

  • Unrelated group

    • Asexual

    • No info on sexual cycle

25,000 species


Penicillin

Woops…

now Ascomycota


Candida albicans

“yeast infection”


Botrytis: “Noble Rot”


Plant-Fungal Relationships

Mycorrhizae (“fungus roots”)

90% of tree species have this association

Very important to absorption of water and nutrients


Soil surface

Plant roots

Mycorrhizae

Increases s.a. for absorption


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