To Err is Human
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 17

Raj Reddy Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA 15213 January 21, 2010 rr.cs.cmu PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 65 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

To Err is Human Computational Limits to Human Thinking : Implications for the Design of Human Centered Interfaces. Raj Reddy Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA 15213 January 21, 2010 www.rr.cs.cmu.edu. Outline of Talk.

Download Presentation

Raj Reddy Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA 15213 January 21, 2010 rr.cs.cmu

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Raj reddy carnegie mellon university pittsburgh pa 15213 january 21 2010 rr cs cmu

To Err is HumanComputational Limits to Human Thinking : Implications for the Design of Human Centered Interfaces

Raj Reddy

Carnegie Mellon University

Pittsburgh, PA 15213

January 21, 2010

www.rr.cs.cmu.edu


Outline of talk

Outline of Talk

  • Limitations of Current Interfaces from the Perspective of Cognitive Science

  • Missing Science of Multimedia Interfaces

  • Interfaces for Enabling Access to the Five Billion people at the Bottom of the Pyramid


Outline of talk1

Outline of Talk

  • Limitations of Current Interfaces from the Perspective of Cognitive Science

  • Missing Science of Multimedia Interfaces

  • Interfaces for Enabling Access to the Five Billion people at the Bottom of the Pyramid


Human strengths and human limitations lessons from cognitive science

Human Strengths and Human LimitationsLessons from Cognitive Science

  • Strengths: People

    • communicate using speech and natural language

    • tolerate errorful, ambiguous and imprecise input

    • exploit vast amounts of knowledge

    • learn from the environment

  • Limitations: People

    • make errors

    • tend to forget

    • become impatient

    • tend to be lazy


To err is human

To Err Is Human

  • Problem:

    • Catastrophic loss of data: “I didn’t mean to do that ”

    • Unanticipated side-effects: “how did that happen??”

  • Causes:

    • Sensory, Cognitive and Motor overload

    • Information Overload: “Like being in a traffic jam”

    • Timing Errors: Simplify the task

  • Present Solutions:

    • Partial Undo

    • Dialog Boxes

  • Future Opportunities:

    • Unlimited Undo

    • Anytime Anywhere Abort

    • DWIM (Do What I Mean)


To forget is human

To Forget Is Human

  • Problem:

    • A non-expert occasional user can’t be expected to remember the details

  • Causes:

    • Forgetting is the loss of indexing structure

    • Redundancy in the indexing structure is the key

  • Present Solutions:

    • Recognition vs. recall: GUIs and Menus

    • On-line manuals

  • Future Opportunities:

    • Use of color, fonts, voice responses for focusing attention

    • Intelligent Help

      • “How do I” and “What if” MultiMedia documentation

    • “Reference librarian” agent


To be impatient is human

To be Impatient Is Human

  • Problem:

    • Time to get the answer in interactive problem solving

      • Long Start-up and Shutdown Times

      • Network operations: Unpredictable retrieval and browsing times

  • Present Solutions:

    • Hour glasses and wheels

      • No idea how long it will take

    • Progress bars

  • Future Opportunities:

    • Updates in the background

    • Learn from experience: self-aware systems

    • Look ahead retrieval and computation

    • Hurry-up algorithms

    • Keystroke model


To be lazy is human

To be Lazy Is Human

  • Problem:

    • Most people use a minimal subset of functionality in Word, PowerPoint, etc.

    • Most people avoid tasks requiring too much cognitive effort

      • PGP - too much work

      • FTP - too complex

  • Causes

    • Principle of Least Effort

  • Future opportunities:

    • Advice giving agents that look over your shoulder

    • Just-in-time learning

    • Gentle slope systems: Easy Things should be Easy to Do

    • Agents (wizards!) that know about PGP, FTP, or whatever


Outline of talk2

Outline of Talk

  • Limitations of Current Interfaces from the Perspective of Cognitive Science

  • Missing Science of Multimedia Interfaces

  • Interfaces for Enabling Access to the Five Billion people at the Bottom of the Pyramid


Missing science of multimedia interfaces lessons from flash forward video

Missing Science of Multimedia InterfacesLessons from Flash Forward Video

  • SILKy Interfaces

    • Speech, Image, Language and Knowledge

  • Forgiving Interfaces: Tolerate error and ambiguity

    • “You Bet” --- “Did That Mean Yes?”

  • Self Improving Interfaces: Incremental non-intrusive knowledge acquisition

    • “Darn” --- “Would you Care to Define It?”

  • Intelligent Help, Advice and Tutoring

    • “ Enthusiasm Detected --- Care to View Large Screen?”

  • Intelligent Agents

    • Mail Serve: Junk Mail

    • Communications: Telephone Tag

    • Intelligent Tutoring Tools

    • Agent Creation Technology


Outline of talk3

Outline of Talk

  • Limitations of Current Interfaces from the Perspective of Cognitive Science

  • Missing Science of Multimedia Interfaces

  • Interfaces for Enabling Access to the Five Billion people at the Bottom of the Pyramid


User interfaces for rural environments

User Interfaces for Rural Environments

  • Low cost PC: target of less than $100

  • A Multifunction Information Appliance: PCtvt

    • PCtvt: TV, PVR, Video Phone, IP Phone and PC

  • PCs for consumption, not creation

    • For Most People in a Village, Entertainment and Communication are of Greater Importance than

      PC Functionality


Pc tvt ui design for use by illiterate persons

PCtvt UI Design for Use by Illiterate Persons

  • An Illiterate person needs a more powerful PC than a Microsoft employee

    • If not e-mail, use voice-mail

    • Replace Text Help by Video Help

  • Radically simple design

    • One minute learning time

    • Two click model

    • Three modes of communication: Video, Audio and Text

      • Both Synchronous and Asynchronous

  • All-Iconic interfaces

  • Multiple input modalities

    • TV-remote, Speech I/O, Keyboard, Mouse or Cell phone


Mapping tv remote to iconic screen layout

Mapping TV Remote to Iconic Screen Layout

2

3

1

3

1

2

5

6

4

6

4

8

9

7

7

9

0

9

BACK

MENU

OK

OK


Tv menu

Video Phone Menu

TV Menu

3

2

5

6

4

9

7

0

OK

OK


The unfinished research agenda

The Unfinished Research Agenda

  • Add Features to Assist in Overcoming Human Limitations such as “Unlimited Undo”, Instant On and Off, and Multimedia Help.

  • WIMPy to SILKy: Move Towards Intelligent Multimedia Interfaces

  • Eliminate Language Divide and Literacy Divide in Future Systems: Interfaces that Enable Access to People at the Bottom of the Pyramid


  • Login