The solar system
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The Solar System. Historical Perspective. Ptolemy (90 – 168 A.D.). Developed system that allowed him to predict location of planets . Planets on small circular orbitals, called epicycles . Geocentric solar system – Earth was center of orbits. System used until 16th century.

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The Solar System

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The solar system

The Solar System


The solar system

Historical Perspective

Ptolemy (90 – 168 A.D.)

  • Developed system that allowed him to predict location of planets.

  • Planets on small circular orbitals, called epicycles.

  • Geocentric solar system – Earth was center of orbits.

  • System used until 16th century.


The solar system

Historical Perspective

Copernicus (1473 – 1543 A.D.)

  • Heliocentric solar system – sun was center of orbits.

  • Earth was planet and rotated.

  • Planets orbiting around sun explained retrograde motion of Mars, because Earth moves faster than Mars.


Retrograde motion of mars

Retrograde Motion Of Mars


The solar system

Planet Orbits

Inner Planets

Outer Planets

Planet orbits are elliptical (slightly oval in shape)


Solar system scale

Solar System Scale

Sizes Of The Planets And Sun Compared


Solar system scale1

Solar System Scale

Planet Distance From Sun Compared

(1 meter @ Troy = 1,000,000 miles in real solar system)


The solar system

Sun

Mercury (36 meters)

Venus (67 meters)

Earth (93 meters)

Mars (142 meters)

(1 meter @ Troy = 1,000,000 miles in real solar system)


The solar system

Inner Planets

(1 meter @ Troy = 1,000,000 miles in real solar system)

Jupiter (483 meters)

Saturn (886 meters)

Uranus (1,787 meters)

Neptune (2,799 meters)


Solar system scale2

Solar System Scale

Sizes And Distances


The solar system

The Sun


How does the sun make its energy

How Does The Sun Make Its Energy?

  • Nuclear Fusion - Combining the nuclei of lighter elements to get heavier elements.

  • E=mc2 means that matter can be converted to energy.

  • You know the 3 states of matter found on Earth; they are solid, liquid, and gas.

  • A fourth state of matter exists it is called plasma and is made of charged particles.

  • This state of matter exists in stars.


What is in plasma

What Is In Plasma?

  • The atom contains charged

    particles called subatomic

    particles (Ions).

  • The particles in the nuclei are

    called protons and have a positive charge.

  • The particles outside the nuclei are called electrons and have a negative charge.

  • In the plasma state these particles are separated.

  • Under extreme conditions the nuclei fuse, this is called nuclear fusion.


What does the sun s fusion look like

What Does The Sun’s Fusion Look Like?

+

4 Hydrogen Atoms

Fusion

1 Helium Atom

Energy


The solar system

The Inner Planets

Mercury

Mars

Venus

Earth


The solar system

Inner Planet Characteristics

  • Distance From Sun:Closer

  • Length Of Year:Shorter

  • Size:Smaller

  • Density:Higher

  • Planet Structure:Core: Metallic

    Mantle: Silicate

  • Surface:Canyons, Craters, Mountains, and Volcanoes

  • Atmosphere:Secondary – Thin And Volcanically Created

  • Rings:None

  • Moons:Few - None


The solar system

The Outer Planets

Neptune

Uranus

Jupiter

Saturn


The solar system

Outer Planet Characteristics

  • Distance From Sun:Farther

  • Length Of Year:Longer

  • Size:Larger

  • Density:Lower

  • Planet Structure:Core: Small & Solid Interior: Liquid (Ju&Sa) Ice (Ur&Ne)Atmosphere: Gas

  • Surface:Gas

  • Atmosphere:Primary – Thick And Created From Nebula

  • Rings:Yes

  • Moons:Many


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