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Managing a Power System with 40% Wind. Dr Alan Rogers EirGrid. Outline. Current Situation Case study: August 26 th 2009> 40% Wind Power System Stability System Stability Tools Conclusions. Current Status. Oct 2009: 1119MW of wind generation connected

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Managing a Power System with 40% Wind

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Managing a power system with 40 wind l.jpg

Managing a Power System with 40% Wind

Dr Alan Rogers

EirGrid


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Outline

  • Current Situation

  • Case study: August 26th 2009> 40% Wind

  • Power System Stability

  • System Stability Tools

  • Conclusions


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Current Status

  • Oct 2009: 1119MW of wind generation connected

  • End of 2009: 1250MW installed

  • End of 2010: 1600MW installed

  • Minimum Generation (August 2009): 1632MW exported

  • Expected Winter Peak Load 2009:4750MW

  • Current Maximum Wind Generation: 999MW

  • Rapidly moving towards:

    • 50% instantaneous wind penetration

    • 33% capacity penetration (Installed Wind MW / Peak MW)


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Maximum Percentage Wind during 2009


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On this day, wind peaked at 750MW and dropped by 370MW in one hour

Hourly Wind VariabilityIncreased Wind needs more flexible conventional plant


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Case StudyAugust 26th 2009 3:45am > 40% Wind

  • Wind generation now regularly exceeds 40% of demand

  • Highest wind penetration in the world on a synchronous system

  • Occurs during night valleys, when demand is at its lowest

  • Conventional Generation Dispatch must be carefully managed

    • Geographical spread of generation for voltage control

    • Certain amount of flexible plant to cope with sudden changes in wind (e.g. hydro)

    • Large machines to provide inertia, synchronizing torque, and short-circuit power

  • Approximate Dispatch on August 26th:

    • 870MW Wind

    • 850MW Large conventional machines at minimum load

    • 200MW Peat / Hydro / Small-scale Gas


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1 x MP minHNC min

2 x TB minHN2 min

PBCCGT min3 x TH pumping

Change in Dispatch from Low to High Wind


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Wind MW fluctuations make jitter amplitude larger  PQ issue / freq control issue

Normal fluctuations in demand cause frequency jitter

Case Study – Control Issues

  • Wind generation peaked at 880MW on August 26th

  • 30MW of non-firm wind was curtailed in South-West

  • NCC expected severe contingencies in North-West, so SONI agreed to import 20MW at both Strabane and Enniskillen to alleviate contingencies


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Power System Stability


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System Stability Tools

  • Online Wind Security Assessment Tool (WSAT) in development: Real-time Analysis (every 30mins)

    • Transient Stability Analysis – Full Dynamic Simulation

      • Faults at every bus / Tripping of large machines / Relay Actions

      • Does the system remain as one synchronous area?

      • Do any machines trip unexpectedly?

    • Voltage Stability Analysis (Margin to Voltage Collapse / N-1 Contingencies)

      • Voltages in range / Overloads / Voltage Collapse

    • Frequency Stability

      • How low will frequency go / frequency recovery / system inertia ?

  • Damping Monitor Relay

    • Analyzing low frequency modes 0.001Hz – 99Hz

    • Oscillatory Events / Magnitudes / Damping / Duration

    • Any systemic change in behaviour with high wind penetration?


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System Security: August 26th

  • Voltage Security Assessment – extra 500MW wind could be accomodated before voltage collapse / unsolved loadflow

    • Yellow region means secure but with some overloads if certain lines trip

  • Transient Security Assessment showed that a large generator trip would cause a frequency drop to about 49.3 Hz

    • This is normal. No other problems were flagged

  • No stability problem with 40% instantaneous wind during SNV as far as we can tell

    • Key limitations: Thermal Limits / Conventional Plant Constraints


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Conclusions

  • 40% instantaneous wind becoming more common

  • Change in Dispatch / System Behaviour

    • Flexible Generation Requirements

    • Extensive dynamic simulations required

  • Power System Stability Tools

    • WSAT

    • Damping Monitor

  • 2020: 37% Average Wind Energy

    • Very high instantaneous penetration in theory (70/80%)

    • Careful study of stability limits will be required


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Possible 2020 Fuel Mix


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