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Wind Energy System. By: Andy Brown, Basheer Qattum & Ali Gokal Advisors: Dr. Na & Dr. Huggins. Outline. Introduction Hardware Software Results Future Steps. History of Wind Energy Utilization. ADVANTAGES OF WIND POWER.

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Wind Energy System

By: Andy Brown, Basheer Qattum & Ali Gokal

Advisors: Dr. Na & Dr. Huggins


Outline

  • Introduction

  • Hardware

  • Software

  • Results

  • Future Steps



ADVANTAGES OF WIND POWER

  •  Wind is free and with modern technology it can be captured efficiently

  • Wind does not cause green house gases or other pollutants

  • Although wind turbines can be very tall each takes up only a small plot of land

  • Excellent source for remote areas not connected to a grid

  • Wind turbines have a role to play in both the developed and third world

  • Available in a range of sizes meaning a vast range of people and businesses can use them

  • Environmentally Friendly

  • Economically Competitive


Goals

  • Output maximum power despite fluctuating wind conditions.

  • Utilize power electronics to perform conversions

  • Successfully implement a DSP board to have a greater degree of control over our system to harness optimal energy

  • To create a system that is applicable with real world industry


Functional Requirements (Hardware)

  • Shall be able to produce .75 kilowatt but not more then 5 kilowatts

  • Shall be able to convert wind power to single phase AC power

  • Must be able to maximize wind power conversion


Wind-Electric Systems

  • Induction Generators, Directly Connected to the Grid

  • Doubly-Fed, Wound Rotor Induction Generators

  • Power Electronics Connected Generator



Functional Description

Sub Systems

  • Generator

  • Diode Rectifier

  • Boost Converters

  • Inverter


Brushless DC Motor

Due to complications with size and Lab requirements, PMSG still.

Max Current 5.4 A

Max Speed 3600 RPM

Max Voltage 160 V

Max Power 750 W


Brushless DC Motor

ɳ=(120*f)/(poles)



Three-Phase Diode Rectifier

Output of DC generator after 3phase diode rectifier w/1.5mF Cap

Max Peak Voltage 1600V

Max Peak Current 300A

Max Current 25A

Max Voltage 600V

V = I*R Vo=(1.35Vin – VDiode)

P = I*V ɳ=(120*f)/(poles)

Value of capacitor to ensure clear signal

C=(Vp/2*f*Vr) =534μF

Therefore we used 1.5mF


Three-Phase Diode Rectifier

Vin = 64.0 V

Vo = 84.0 V

Io = 961 mA

Speed = 3000 RPM

R = 88Ω

P = 80.72W


Three-Phase Diode Rectifier

Output of DC generator after 3phase diode rectifier w/o Cap

Current

DC Voltage

Vo = 85.0 V

Io = 964 mA

Speed = 3000 RPM


Three-Phase Diode Rectifier

Output of DC generator after 3phase diode rectifier w/1.5mF Cap

DC Voltage

3φ Voltage

Vin = 64.0 V

Vo = 84.0 V

Io = 961 mA

Speed = 3000 RPM



Boost Converter

Vo=Vin/(1-D), or for more accurate values,

Vo= {[(VIn-VIGBT*D)/(1-D)] – VDiode}

IGBT: Switching Freq up to 300kHz

Max voltage at 600V

Max current at 60A



Gate Driver

Most time consuming part of Boost converter


Gate Driver

  • Gate to emitter (pulse) ±30V

  • Gate to emitter (cont) ±20V

  • Max Gate Current ±250uA

  • Gate driver output +18V

  • 120/14 VAC-RMS 17.89VDC

  • Output up too 600V

  • Current up to 2A

  • Shutdown mode for protection





DSP Board - TI TMS320F2812

  • PWM Generation

    • 16-Bit

    • 16 PWM outputs

    • 0 V – 3.3 V

  • ADC

    • 12-Bit

    • Analog Input: 0 V - 3 V


Controller Implementation Process

SIMULINK

DSP

CODE COMPOSER


Testing CircuitSingle Channel Boost Converter


SimulationOpen-Loop Controller


Testing CircuitOpen Loop Controller


Testing HardwareOutput Results


Testing HardwareOutput

  • Duty Cycle: 20%

  • Input Voltage: 5.00 V

  • Output Voltage: 6.00 V








Interleaved Boost ConverterOpen-Loop Controller


Interleaved Boost ConverterOpen-Loop Controller


Interleaved Boost ConverterOpen-Loop ControllerOutput


Single Phase Inverter Controller

  • Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation


Unipolar PWM

Vout = Vd When T1,T4 is ON

Vout=-Vd When T2,T3 is ON

Vout=0 When T1,T3 or T2,T4 is ON



LC Filter

Magnitude Bode Plot for Second-Order LC Filter


LC Filter

  • Chose L = .125mH

  • Yields C = 240uF






Future Work - Controller

  • Closed-Loop Voltage and Current Controller for Two-Channel Interleaved Boost Converter

  • Maximum Power Point Tracking Controller

  • Single-Phase Inverter Controller with Unity Power Factor Correction


Interleaved Boost Converter Voltage-Current Controller

  • Same Controller as designed

  • Need to output two PWM signal

    • The second PWM signal has to been delayed by half the period




MPPT

  • Perturbation and Observation Method (P&O)

    • MPPT algorithm adjusts duty cycle to achieve




MPPTCurrent Controller Design



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