Apartheid 1960-1980. Sharpeville. Robert Sobukwe formed the PAC in 1959, considering the ANC too moderate, cautious, too communist influenced and too multi-racial.
Robert Sobukwe formed the PAC in 1959, considering the ANC too moderate, cautious, too communist influenced and too multi-racial.
21 March 1960 both ANC and PAC staged simultaneous peaceful demonstrations. In Orlando, Sobukwe and his demonstrators were arrested (spent nine years in prison). 55km away, a large noisy crowd surrounded the police station at Sharpeville and were fired on. 69 killed 180 injured, mostly in the back. At the Cape a large crowd were baton charged and fired upon by Police. Two were killed, 49 wounded.
So began the international condemnation of Apartheid.
30 March 30 000 marchers led by PAC leader Philip Kgosana converged on Parliament House in Cape Town. Given assurances he could meet with the Justice Minister the next day if the mod dispersed, Kgosana returned to be immediately arrested.
The government decided on total repression: A state of emergency declared, the army reserve was called up and thousands of ANC and PAC leaders were arrested and the parties outlawed.
The time for peaceful protest had passed.
Mandela formed the ‘Spear of the People’ the MK, an underground terrorist group of the ANC. 1960
Concentrated on sabotage and he avoidance of the loss of life. Chief targets power stations and government offices. Mandela travelled to the UK and other African States for advice, including guerrilla training in Ethiopia.
He was captured in 1962, and with his link to MK not known, he was sentenced to a five-year prison sentence for ‘leaving the country without permission.’
Raids on the MK headquarters in 1963 saw the arrest of key leadership and evidence linking Mandela to the MK. Charged with ‘treason, recruiting and training for sabotage and guerrilla warfare for the purpose of violent revolution,’ Mandela, Walter Sisulu and six others were found guilty and sentenced the life imprisonment.
By 1968 virtually all of the rest of Africa, except South Africa had black governments.
In 1960 British PM Harold Macmillan addressed the South African parliament and made it clear that his government and the Commonwealth found the Apartheid policies unacceptable. Verwoerd responded by holding an all-white referendum in 1961 and South Africa voted to become a Republic and subsequently withdrew from the Commonwealth.
Worldwide disgust at Apartheid grew in the 1960s
Verwoerd and his successor Vorster inflamed international opinion
· Refused entry of the Maoris from the All-Blacks Rugby team
· Refused entry to cricketer Basil D’Oliveira, a Cape Coloured who had gained selection in the English cricket team.
In 1963, the black African nations met to form the OAU, making the abolition of Apartheid its number one aim.
South Africa with a booming economy between 1961 and 1970. It was very strong.
Huge foreign investment esp US, GB, WGER and JAP.
More valuable minerals than any other nation after the USSR.
Major producer of rare minerals vital to US and EURO industries
Despite the anti-Apartheid rhetoric, these nations would not back UN or OAU schemes to overthrow the white government. They had too much to lose.
Its nears neighbours were depended on SA for providing employment and many of the important rail and road links carrying the vital imports and exports for nations like Mozambique, Botswana and Lesotho went vis Sa ports at Durbin and Cape Town.
Being economically strong meant that is had the most powerful and fully resourced army in Africa.
The Cold War
SA became a US pawn in the Cold War. The US needed a strong capitalist SA for its minerals and for trade and it commanded such an important strategic sea route for oil shipments. Black activism and the calls to end Apartheid became therefore linked to Communism.
Up until the end of the 1970s and into the 80s SA enjoyed economic prosperity.
Whites and the economy
· By 1970s Afrikaners were now city dwellers and on par in wages with English speakers.
· Wages hardly risen between 1948-1970
· But saw rapid rise after 1970: trade unions, international pressure, needed well paid workers to fuel the economy. 60% increase between 1970 and 1986 while white wages rose only 18%
· Biggest problem in 1980s and 90s was high black unemployment and severe poverty in large pockets due to the forced removals policy.
· Lack of actual contact between Blacks and Whites
· Spoke separate languages, attended different schools and lived in different suburbs
· A white’s understanding of blacks was clouded by both distance and the servant-master relationship.
· Spacious homes, swimming pools, large gardens and a ready supply of servants
· High car ownership. Strong US and GBR cultural influences and aspirations
· Television banned until 1976. Radio controlled
· Few Afrikaners travelled overseas
· Rugby and Cricket mad
· From mid 1970s a more aware white society began to emerge. Better educated women, more overseas travel, TV.
· Growth of white liberal newspapers both British and Afrikaner and political groups who were openly critical of apartheid.
Most blacks have vivid memories of white superiority
As time passed fewer blacks were prepared to go on enduring humiliation in silence
These were the so-called Black elite. Most of those employed settled in jobs in the cities which required education and skills – clerks, civil servants, teachers, nurses, builders and taxi drivers.
They lived in the more pleasant areas of the townships, they might own a car
Church membership was important, choirs and social clubs also.
Black society however remained divided:
The full effects of Verwoerd’s separation policy did not appear until the late 1970s and early 1980s. It became apparent to many whites that this policy was not going to work
1970s saw the reduction of blacks employed by white farmers who had mechanised their farms or changed their farming habits. As such 2 million blacks were forcibly removed form their homes into greater poverty, suffering and despair. Violence erupted in the 1980s as a consequence.
Example 1: Welcome Valley Resettlement Camp.
· Not enough water
· Infertile land
· no work or industry within daily reach
· disease and the constant edge
· of starvation
Example 2: Unibel
· squatter camp of 25 000 near Cape Town.
· Government decided that they should move to the Bantustan of Ciskei 100s of km away and flattened the camp with bulldozers.
· Most simply melted away into neighbouring squatter camps nearby.
Example 3: Glenmore
· In 1979 the Government decided to the entire inhabitants of Colchester, a relatively nice area, where there was work and real community, 200 km to Glenmore. Their homes were destroyed their furniture and possessions smashed. At Glenmore housing and sanitation was poor.
· Some grew at an amazing pace.
· Some Bantustans had their areas increased to take in areas to include townships near white factories so blacks could commute to work
· Botshabelo 50mkm from Bloemfontein had a population of 300 000 by 1985 while the township of Kwandebele population 300 000 was heavily dependant on Pretoria 100km away for employment.
· Some workers, ferried in blacks only buses, were faced with a six hour per day travel of travel
· With such overcrowding in the townships people ate less and few townships had running water or electricity to each of the houses. Coal was too expensive so wood had to be used for heating and cooking.