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Chapter 27. The Counterculture & Protest 1960 - 1980. The Youth Movement. Challenged: Political & social system Conventional Middle Class values Inspired by the Beats (of the 1950’s) Originated with “Baby Boomers” By 1970- 58.4% of US 34 years old or younger.

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Chapter 27

Chapter 27

The Counterculture & Protest1960 - 1980

The youth movement
The Youth Movement

  • Challenged:

    • Political & social system

    • Conventional Middle Class values

    • Inspired by the Beats (of the 1950’s)

    • Originated with “Baby Boomers”

    • By 1970- 58.4% of US 34 years old

      or younger.

    • 1960-1965- enrollment in 4 year colleges

      went from 3.1 million to 5 million.

      * (1959)Students for a Democratic Society (SDS)

  • 1962*Port Huron Statement (Tom Hayden)

    • Anti-Vietnam War

    • Anti-Big Corporation & Big Government

    • Anti-Apathy

    • Also worked against poverty, nuclear power & racism

Free speech movement
Free Speech Movement

  • *Mario Savio (leader)

  • UC Berkley limited student publications & recruitment for political causes

  • Dec. 1964- Savio & UC Berkeley students held sit-ins on campus & police arrested 700.

  • Supreme Court said students have a right to free speech and assembly on campus

The counterculture
The Counterculture

  • Mostly white middle class

  • Hippies- rejected society

  • Communes

    • Living & working together away from the rest of society

    • *Haight Ashbury District

      Popular destination for

      US hippies (San Francisco)

      New Religion

    • Unification Church

    • Hare Krishna

Decline impact of the counterculture
Decline & Impact of the Counterculture

  • After a few years the counterculture declined.


  • Hippie communes became dangerous

  • Drug addiction =(death & overdoses)

  • Many hippies got older & moved on

    Impactof the Counterculture.

  • Fashion- wore cheap surplus clothes from earlier decades, long hair= rejected consumerism

  • Music- made use of folk music & rhythm & blues.

  • 1969-Woodstock (up state NY)- outdoor music festival featured singers Bob Dylan, The Who etc.


  • Pop Art

    • Contained elements of popular culture

  • Andy Warhol

    • Pop artist

    • Famous people


  • Beatles

  • Bob Dylan

  • Jimi Hendrix

  • All of these created a bigger generation gap between old & young

  • Woodstock

    • Upstate NY August 1969

    • Festival of music

A renewed women s movement
A Renewed Women’s Movement

  • 19th Amendment (1920) granted women the right to vote.

  • Next 40 years, women’s movement had little influence.

  • WWII- women given greater opportunities for work outside home.

  • Post WWII- society emphasized a homemaking role.

  • 1960 –1/3 of married women were part of the paid workforce.

Women and the workplace
Women and the Workplace

  • Newspaper ads separated jobs by gender.

  • Banks denied women credit.

  • Women paid less than men for doing same work.

  • President’s Commission on the Status of Women (Kennedy)

  • 1963- Equal Pay Act passed.

The feminist movement
The Feminist Movement

  • Feminism

    • belief that men and women should be equal politically, economically and socially

  • *The Feminine Mystique

    • By *Betty Friedan – best selling book

    • Exposed sense of dissatisfaction women had with the traditional role.

    • Title VII: of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 outlawed job discrimination based on gender

  • National Organization for Women (NOW)

    • Demanded greater educational opportunities (formed by Friedan & others).

The feminist movement1
The Feminist Movement

  • Gloria Steinem: author & public figure - one of the movement’s leading figures (editor—Ms. Magazine).

  • *Title IX: prohibited federally funded schools from discriminating against women

  • 1973- Roe v Wade: ruled that the states could not regulate abortion in the first 3 months of pregnancy because it was a time that would violate the woman’s right to privacy- abortion is legal!

  • Right to Life: anti-abortion movement

  • Equal Rights Amendment: would have protected women against discrimination – it failed (3 states refused to ratify) opposition –Phyllis Schlafly

African americans
African Americans

  • *Affirmative Action:

    • companies doing business with federal government should actively recruit African American employees to improve social and economic status

  • *University of California Regents v Bakke (1978):

    • ruled schools could use racial criteria as part of their admissions process but couldn’t use fixed quotas

  • Swan v Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education (1970) :

    • upheld the constitutionality of busing – transporting minority students to fully integrate schools

  • White Flight: Whites responded by removing their students from public schools

African americans1
African Americans

  • Jesse Jackson:

    • political leader

    • People United to Save Humanity (PUSH)

    • worked at registering voters, developing African American businesses and educational opportunities

  • Congressional Black Caucus:

    • 1971 African American members of Congress organized to more clearly represent the legislative concerns of blacks

Hispanic americans
Hispanic Americans

  • *Cesar Chavez:

    • fought for farm workers for increased wages, union recognition and better benefits

    • Created United Farm Workers

  • La RazaUnida (1969):

    • political party begun in Texas to represent Hispanics

  • Bilingualism:

    • teaching in Spanish while also learning English

    • argument - they would be at a competitive disadvantage with English speakers because difficult to understand in another language

  • 1968 Bilingual Education Act:

    • directed schools to set up classes for immigrants in their own language as they were learning English

Native americans
Native Americans

  • Declaration of Indian Purpose:

    • called for policies to create greater economic opportunities on reservations

    • Instead of wanting assimilation they wanted more independence.

  • Indian Civil Rights Act:

    • guaranteed reservation residents the protection of the Bill of Rights

  • American Indian Movement:

    • a more militant group that made stands at Alcatraz and Wounded Knee in 1970’s.

  • Indian Self-Determination and Educational Assistance Act:

    • increased funds for Native American education

    • expanded local control in administering federal programs

Save the earth
Save the Earth

  • *Rachel Carson- *“Silent Spring”- book about pesticide’s effect on the environment.

  • 1970- Earth Day:

    • Day devoted to addressing nation’s environmental concerns

      Environmental Protection Agency:

    • created in 1970 by Nixon –

    • set and enforced pollution standards, promoted research and coordinated state activities

      Clean Air Act:

    • 1970 Nixon established emissions standards for factories and automobiles & ordered industries to comply with standards

  • Clean Water Act: 1972

    • restricted the discharge of pollutants into the nations’ lakes and rivers

  • Endangered Species Act:

    • 1973 established measures for saving threatened animal species

  • Three Mile Island: March 28, 1979

    • nuclear facility outside of Harrisburg Pennsylvania overheated after its cooling system failed & low levels of radiation escaped

  • National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act:

    • Ralph Nader in 1966

    • regulated the automobile industry for the first time in safety