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Lecture 5 OE Grammar. Helpan (Infinitive) - h u lp on (Past Plural) ge- yfel (bad) - wiersa – wierest bēon, wesan. A synthetic language: grammatical ending sound interchange grammatical prefixes suppletive formation . OE Noun. Gender Number Case.

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lecture 5 oe grammar
Lecture 5 OE Grammar
  • Helpan (Infinitive) - hulpon (Past Plural)
  • ge-
  • yfel (bad) - wiersa – wierest
  • bēon, wesan
slide2

A synthetic language:

  • grammatical ending
  • sound interchange
  • grammatical prefixes
  • suppletive formation
oe noun
OE Noun
  • Gender
  • Number
  • Case
uses of the old english cases
Uses of the Old English Cases
  • Nominative
  • Accusative
  • Genitive
  • Dative
  • Instrumental
slide5

Nominative: se cyning

  • Accusative: Æþelbald lufode þone cyning "Æþelbald loved the king“
  • Genitive: þæs cyninges scip
  • Dative: hringas þæm cyninge
  • Instrumental: lifde sweorde - "he lived by the sword"
slide10

Scip (Neuter) – ship

  • Tale (Feminine) tale
slide12
Masculine:

earm (an arm),

eorl,

hring (a ring),

Neuter

dor (a gate),

hof (a courtyard),

bearn (a child),

dēor(an animal)

root stems
Root-stems
  • The old case endings were added directly to the final consonant of the root (no stem suffix)
  • The i-mutation rule
  • The root vowel is changed during the declension
  • Eg. fōt
examples of root stems
Examples of root stems
  • hnutu
  • gōs
  • mūs
  • tōþ
  • bōc
  • lūs
slide17

r-stems for family relatives :

dohtor

mōdor

  • (e)s-stems for children and cubs:

cild \'a child\',

cealf \'a calf‘

lamb

slide18

nd –stems

  • frēond,
  • Hettend
  • Hælend
  • Wealend
  • āgend
demonstrative pronouns
Demonstrative pronouns
  • sē, sēo, þæt
  • þēs, þēōs, þis
interrogative pronouns
Interrogative pronouns
  • hwā?(who?) and hwæt? (what?)
definite pronouns
Definite pronouns
  • gehwā (every) – declined as hwā;
  • gehwilc (each), ǣgÞer (either), ǣlc (each), swilc (such)

3. sē ilca – declined as a weak adjective.

slide27

Indefinite pronouns

sum (some), ǣnig (any)

  • Negative

nān, nǣning (no) – declined as strong adjectives.

slide28

I.

  • What kind of declension type of OE do you remember?
  • What type of declension did such nouns as tooth, foot, man, goose, mouse belong to in OE?

II.

  • What kinds of pronouns existed in OE?
  • Which pronouns had the dual number?
strong type of declension
Strongtype of declension
  • Strong
  • Þā men sindon gōde
  • gōd man
  • sē gōda man, þy betstan lēōde(with the best song).
weak adjectives
Weak adjectives
  • sē gōda man,
  • þy betstan lēōde(with the best song).
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