Lecture 5 oe grammar
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Lecture 5 OE Grammar. Helpan (Infinitive) - h u lp on (Past Plural) ge- yfel (bad) - wiersa – wierest bēon, wesan. A synthetic language: grammatical ending sound interchange grammatical prefixes suppletive formation . OE Noun. Gender Number Case.

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Lecture 5 oe grammar
Lecture 5 OE Grammar

  • Helpan (Infinitive) - hulpon (Past Plural)

  • ge-

  • yfel (bad) - wiersa – wierest

  • bēon, wesan


A synthetic language:

  • grammatical ending

  • sound interchange

  • grammatical prefixes

  • suppletive formation


Oe noun
OE Noun

  • Gender

  • Number

  • Case


Uses of the old english cases
Uses of the Old English Cases

  • Nominative

  • Accusative

  • Genitive

  • Dative

  • Instrumental


  • Nominative: se cyning

  • Accusative: Æþelbald lufode þone cyning "Æþelbald loved the king“

  • Genitive: þæs cyninges scip

  • Dative: hringas þæm cyninge

  • Instrumental: lifde sweorde - "he lived by the sword"



A stem masculine
A-stemMasculine



Masculine:

earm (an arm),

eorl,

hring (a ring),

Neuter

dor (a gate),

hof (a courtyard),

bearn (a child),

dēor(an animal)


U declension oe sunu son
U-declensionOE sunu- son



Root stems
Root-stems

  • The old case endings were added directly to the final consonant of the root (no stem suffix)

  • The i-mutation rule

  • The root vowel is changed during the declension

  • Eg. fōt


Examples of root stems
Examples of root stems

  • hnutu

  • gōs

  • mūs

  • tōþ

  • bōc

  • lūs


  • r-stems for family relatives :

    dohtor

    mōdor

  • (e)s-stems for children and cubs:

    cild 'a child',

    cealf 'a calf‘

    lamb


  • nd –stems

  • frēond,

  • Hettend

  • Hælend

  • Wealend

  • āgend



Demonstrative pronouns
Demonstrative pronouns

  • sē, sēo, þæt

  • þēs, þēōs, þis



Interrogative pronouns
Interrogative pronouns

  • hwā?(who?) and hwæt? (what?)



Definite pronouns
Definite pronouns

  • gehwā (every) – declined as hwā;

  • gehwilc (each), ǣgÞer (either), ǣlc (each), swilc (such)

    3. sē ilca – declined as a weak adjective.


  • Indefinite pronouns

    sum (some), ǣnig (any)

  • Negative

    nān, nǣning (no) – declined as strong adjectives.


I.

  • What kind of declension type of OE do you remember?

  • What type of declension did such nouns as tooth, foot, man, goose, mouse belong to in OE?

    II.

  • What kinds of pronouns existed in OE?

  • Which pronouns had the dual number?


Strong type of declension
Strongtype of declension

  • Strong

  • Þā men sindon gōde

  • gōd man

  • sē gōda man, þy betstan lēōde(with the best song).


Weak adjectives
Weak adjectives

  • sē gōda man,

  • þy betstan lēōde(with the best song).




Suppletive forms of comparative and superlative
suppletiveformsofcomparativeandsuperlative


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