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Grammar Writing Lecture 7. 11-721 Grammars and Lexicons. Teruko Mitamura teruko@cs.cmu.edu www.cs.cmu.edu/~teruko. Schedule: November 28. Q/A on Grammar Writing Project Q/A sessions by TA Equations Finish Japanese Grammar exercise (jpn.gra) Start a new grammar.

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Grammar Writing Lecture 7

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## Grammar WritingLecture 7

11-721

Grammars and Lexicons

Teruko Mitamura

teruko@cs.cmu.edu

www.cs.cmu.edu/~teruko

LTI Grammars and Lexicons

### Schedule: November 28

• Q/A on Grammar Writing Project

• Q/A sessions by TA

• Equations

• Finish Japanese Grammar exercise (jpn.gra)

• Start a new grammar

LTI Grammars and Lexicons

### *UNDEFINED* and *DEFINED*

• The word *UNDEFINED* and *DEFINED* can be used on the right hand side of an equation.

• *UNDEFINED* makes sure that the left hand side of the equation has no value.

• *DEFINED* makes sure that the left hand side of the equation has a value.

((x1 negation) = *UNDEFINED*)

LTI Grammars and Lexicons

### Assigning Multiple Values

• Multiple values can be assigned to a feature.

• Use the grater-than sign (>) in place of the equal sign.

• If the following rule applies recursively, the pp-adjunct function will have several different values at the same time:

(<S> <==> (<S> <PP>)

((x0 = x1)

((x0 pp-adjunct) > x2))) ; This rule should come last.

• Multiple rule is sensitive to rule ordering

LTI Grammars and Lexicons

### Grammar Exercise (Japanese Grammar)

• Free word-order language

• SOV language

• Case markers determine grammatical relations

(ga, wo, ni, de, etc)

• Grammar file: jpn.gra

• Test files: jpn-test1.lisp

/afs/cs/project/cmt-55/lti/Lab/Modules/GNL-721/2007/

LTI Grammars and Lexicons

### Japanese Lexicon

nichiyoubi (Sunday)

nyuuyooku (New York)

hoomuran (home run)

itta (went)

utta (hit-past)

Hideki, Ichiro (person’s name)

ga (NOM case)

wo (ACC case)

ni (Time-on)

ni (Loc-to)

e (Loc-to)

de (Loc-at)

LTI Grammars and Lexicons

### Japanese Examples

Nichiyoubi ni Hideki ga Nyuuyook e itta.

Sunday on Hideki NOM New York to go PAST

“Hideki went to New York on Sunday.”

Nichiyoubi niNyuuyooku eHideki ga itta.

Hideki ganichiyoubi niNyuuyooku e itta.

Hideki gaNyuuyooku enichiyoubi ni itta.

Nyuuyooku eHideki ganichiyoubi ni itta.

Nyuuyooku enichiyoubi niHideki ga itta.

LTI Grammars and Lexicons

### Japanese Examples (2)

Hideki gaNyuuyooku e itta

Nyuuyooku eHideki ga itta

Nichiyoubi niNyuuyooku e itta

Nyuuyooku enichiyoubi ni itta

Hideki ganichiyoubi ni itta

Nichiyoubi niHideki ga itta

Hideki ga itta

Nyuuyooku e itta

Nichiyoubi ni itta

LTI Grammars and Lexicons

### Japanese Example

Nichiyoubi ni Ichiro ga hoomuran wo utta.

Sunday on Ichiro NOM home run ACC hit-PAST

“Ichiro hit a home run on Sunday.”

LTI Grammars and Lexicons

### Ungrammatical Sentences

• You can’t have two nominatives or accusatives in a sentence. (jpn-test1.lisp)

*Hideki ga nichiyoubi ga itta

*Hideki ga Hideki ga itta

*Hideki ga hoomuran ga utta

*Hideki wo hoomuran wo utta

LTI Grammars and Lexicons

### Japanese Grammar

• Use of recursive rules

(<S> < == > (<NP> <S>)

(<S> < == > (<V>)

LTI Grammars and Lexicons

### Recursive Rules

S

NP S

NP S

N P N P V

Hideki gaNyuuyooku e itta

LTI Grammars and Lexicons

### Japanese Grammar (2)

• “ni” is ambiguous in Japanese

Time-on, Loc-to

Nichiyoubi ni itta (went on Sunday)

Nyuuyooku ni itta (went to New York)

• “ni” and “e” can be used for Loc-to

Nyuuyooku ni/e itta (went to New York)

LTI Grammars and Lexicons

### Japanese grammar exercise

• Grammar file:

/afs/cs/project/cmt-55/lti/Lab/Modules/GNL721/2007/jpn.gra

• Test file:

jpn-test1.lisp

LTI Grammars and Lexicons

### Japanese Grammar (2)

• “ni” is ambiguous in Japanese

Time-on, Loc-to

Nichiyoubi ni itta (went on Sunday)

Nyuuyooku ni itta (went to New York)

• “ni” and “e” can be used for Loc-to

Nyuuyooku ni/e itta (went to New York)

LTI Grammars and Lexicons

### Japanese Grammar (3)

• “de” is Loc-in/Loc-at with action verbs

Nyuuyooku de tabeta (ate in New York)

CMU de tabeta (ate at CMU)

Nyuuyooku de hoomuran wo utta

(hit hoomuran in New York)

LTI Grammars and Lexicons

### Ungrammatical Sentences (2)

“itta (went)” doesn’t take Loc-at/in “de”

*Nyuuyooku de itta (*went in/at New York)

“tabeta (ate)” doesn’t take Loc-to “ni/e”

*Nyuuyooku ni/e tabeta (*ate to New York)

Time expression doesn’t take Loc-at, Loc-to

*Nichiyoubi de/e itta (*went at/to Sunday)

*Nichiyoubi de/e utta (*hit at/to Sunday)

*Nichiyoubi de/e tabeta (*ate at/to Sunday)

LTI Grammars and Lexicons

### Ungrammatical Sentences (3)

• Wrong case marker (jpn-test2.lisp)

Nyuuyooku ni/e itta (Loc-to)

*Nyuuyooku de itta (Loc-at)

Nyuuyooku de tabeta (Loc-at)

*Nyuuyooku ni/e tabeta (Loc-to)

Nichiyoubi ni itta/tabeta (Time-on)

*Nichiyoubi de itta/tabeta (Loc-at)

*Nichiyoubi e itta/tabeta (Loc-to)

LTI Grammars and Lexicons

### Japanese grammar exercise

• Grammar file:

/afs/cs/project/cmt-55/lti/Lab/Modules/GNL721/2007/jpn.gra

• Test file:

jpn-test2.lisp

• Work on test2 and test-fail2

• Run test1 to see if it is still working

LTI Grammars and Lexicons

### Questions?

LTI Grammars and Lexicons