Grammar writing lecture 7
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Grammar Writing Lecture 7. 11-721 Grammars and Lexicons. Teruko Mitamura [email protected] www.cs.cmu.edu/~teruko. Schedule: November 28. Q/A on Grammar Writing Project Q/A sessions by TA Equations Finish Japanese Grammar exercise (jpn.gra) Start a new grammar.

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Grammar Writing Lecture 7

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Grammar writing lecture 7

Grammar WritingLecture 7

11-721

Grammars and Lexicons

Teruko Mitamura

[email protected]

www.cs.cmu.edu/~teruko

LTI Grammars and Lexicons


Schedule november 28

Schedule: November 28

  • Q/A on Grammar Writing Project

  • Q/A sessions by TA

  • Equations

  • Finish Japanese Grammar exercise (jpn.gra)

  • Start a new grammar

LTI Grammars and Lexicons


Undefined and defined

*UNDEFINED* and *DEFINED*

  • The word *UNDEFINED* and *DEFINED* can be used on the right hand side of an equation.

  • *UNDEFINED* makes sure that the left hand side of the equation has no value.

  • *DEFINED* makes sure that the left hand side of the equation has a value.

    ((x1 negation) = *UNDEFINED*)

LTI Grammars and Lexicons


Assigning multiple values

Assigning Multiple Values

  • Multiple values can be assigned to a feature.

  • Use the grater-than sign (>) in place of the equal sign.

  • If the following rule applies recursively, the pp-adjunct function will have several different values at the same time:

    (<S> <==> (<S> <PP>)

    ((x0 = x1)

    ((x0 pp-adjunct) > x2))) ; This rule should come last.

  • Multiple rule is sensitive to rule ordering

LTI Grammars and Lexicons


Grammar exercise japanese grammar

Grammar Exercise (Japanese Grammar)

  • Free word-order language

  • SOV language

  • Case markers determine grammatical relations

    (ga, wo, ni, de, etc)

  • Grammar file: jpn.gra

  • Test files: jpn-test1.lisp

    /afs/cs/project/cmt-55/lti/Lab/Modules/GNL-721/2007/

LTI Grammars and Lexicons


Japanese lexicon

Japanese Lexicon

nichiyoubi (Sunday)

nyuuyooku (New York)

hoomuran (home run)

itta (went)

utta (hit-past)

Hideki, Ichiro (person’s name)

ga (NOM case)

wo (ACC case)

ni (Time-on)

ni (Loc-to)

e (Loc-to)

de (Loc-at)

LTI Grammars and Lexicons


Japanese examples

Japanese Examples

Nichiyoubi ni Hideki ga Nyuuyook e itta.

Sunday on Hideki NOM New York to go PAST

“Hideki went to New York on Sunday.”

Nichiyoubi niNyuuyooku eHideki ga itta.

Hideki ganichiyoubi niNyuuyooku e itta.

Hideki gaNyuuyooku enichiyoubi ni itta.

Nyuuyooku eHideki ganichiyoubi ni itta.

Nyuuyooku enichiyoubi niHideki ga itta.

LTI Grammars and Lexicons


Japanese examples 2

Japanese Examples (2)

Hideki gaNyuuyooku e itta

Nyuuyooku eHideki ga itta

Nichiyoubi niNyuuyooku e itta

Nyuuyooku enichiyoubi ni itta

Hideki ganichiyoubi ni itta

Nichiyoubi niHideki ga itta

Hideki ga itta

Nyuuyooku e itta

Nichiyoubi ni itta

LTI Grammars and Lexicons


Japanese example

Japanese Example

Nichiyoubi ni Ichiro ga hoomuran wo utta.

Sunday on Ichiro NOM home run ACC hit-PAST

“Ichiro hit a home run on Sunday.”

LTI Grammars and Lexicons


Ungrammatical sentences

Ungrammatical Sentences

  • You can’t have two nominatives or accusatives in a sentence. (jpn-test1.lisp)

    *Hideki ga nichiyoubi ga itta

    *Hideki ga Hideki ga itta

    *Hideki ga hoomuran ga utta

    *Hideki wo hoomuran wo utta

LTI Grammars and Lexicons


Japanese grammar

Japanese Grammar

  • Use of recursive rules

    (<S> < == > (<NP> <S>)

    (<S> < == > (<V>)

LTI Grammars and Lexicons


Recursive rules

Recursive Rules

S

NP S

NP S

N P N P V

Hideki gaNyuuyooku e itta

LTI Grammars and Lexicons


Japanese grammar 2

Japanese Grammar (2)

  • “ni” is ambiguous in Japanese

    Time-on, Loc-to

    Nichiyoubi ni itta (went on Sunday)

    Nyuuyooku ni itta (went to New York)

  • “ni” and “e” can be used for Loc-to

    Nyuuyooku ni/e itta (went to New York)

LTI Grammars and Lexicons


Japanese grammar exercise

Japanese grammar exercise

  • Grammar file:

    /afs/cs/project/cmt-55/lti/Lab/Modules/GNL721/2007/jpn.gra

  • Test file:

    jpn-test1.lisp

LTI Grammars and Lexicons


Japanese grammar 21

Japanese Grammar (2)

  • “ni” is ambiguous in Japanese

    Time-on, Loc-to

    Nichiyoubi ni itta (went on Sunday)

    Nyuuyooku ni itta (went to New York)

  • “ni” and “e” can be used for Loc-to

    Nyuuyooku ni/e itta (went to New York)

LTI Grammars and Lexicons


Japanese grammar 3

Japanese Grammar (3)

  • “de” is Loc-in/Loc-at with action verbs

    Nyuuyooku de tabeta (ate in New York)

    CMU de tabeta (ate at CMU)

    Nyuuyooku de hoomuran wo utta

    (hit hoomuran in New York)

LTI Grammars and Lexicons


Ungrammatical sentences 2

Ungrammatical Sentences (2)

“itta (went)” doesn’t take Loc-at/in “de”

*Nyuuyooku de itta (*went in/at New York)

“tabeta (ate)” doesn’t take Loc-to “ni/e”

*Nyuuyooku ni/e tabeta (*ate to New York)

Time expression doesn’t take Loc-at, Loc-to

*Nichiyoubi de/e itta (*went at/to Sunday)

*Nichiyoubi de/e utta (*hit at/to Sunday)

*Nichiyoubi de/e tabeta (*ate at/to Sunday)

LTI Grammars and Lexicons


Ungrammatical sentences 3

Ungrammatical Sentences (3)

  • Wrong case marker (jpn-test2.lisp)

    Nyuuyooku ni/e itta (Loc-to)

    *Nyuuyooku de itta (Loc-at)

    Nyuuyooku de tabeta (Loc-at)

    *Nyuuyooku ni/e tabeta (Loc-to)

    Nichiyoubi ni itta/tabeta (Time-on)

    *Nichiyoubi de itta/tabeta (Loc-at)

    *Nichiyoubi e itta/tabeta (Loc-to)

LTI Grammars and Lexicons


Japanese grammar exercise1

Japanese grammar exercise

  • Grammar file:

    /afs/cs/project/cmt-55/lti/Lab/Modules/GNL721/2007/jpn.gra

  • Test file:

    jpn-test2.lisp

  • Work on test2 and test-fail2

  • Run test1 to see if it is still working

LTI Grammars and Lexicons


Questions

Questions?

LTI Grammars and Lexicons


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