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Series and Parallel– Simple Circuits. Series vs. Parallel circuits. What happens when a light goes out in a string of christmas light? What happens when a light bulb goes out in your house?. Look at the two circuits shown. A. BRIGHTER. B. DIMMER. What do we call circuit B?.

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Series and parallel simple circuits

Series and Parallel– Simple Circuits


Series vs parallel circuits
Series vs. Parallel circuits

  • What happens when a light goes out in a string of christmas light?

  • What happens when a light bulb goes out in your house?


Look at the two circuits shown
Look at the two circuits shown

A.

BRIGHTER

B.

DIMMER

What do we call circuit B?

What happens if you unscrew a bulb in circuit B?

What happens if you unscrew one bulb in Circuit A?

What do we call circuit A?

The other bulb stays lit.

The other bulb goes out.

Series Circuit

Parallel Circuit

In circuit A the bulbs are the brightest.

In which circuit are the bulbs the brightest?


Series circuits
Series Circuits

  • When electrons have only one path to follow (like a single slide at a water park)

  • If a person stops the current stops, if they close the slide (open a switch) the current will no longer flow.

  • A circuit with only one path to follow is called a Series Circuit.


Voltage in a series
Voltage in a Series

  • A battery loses all the voltage it pushes around the circuit by sharing it around all the loads in the circuit.

  • Think about when you walk up 12 steps of ladder to a slide. You lose all 12 steps as you go down the slide, then you get the push of the stairs back up to the top.

  • In a series circuit, the sum of the voltages lost on the loads equals the total voltage supplied by the battery.


Measuring voltage in a series circuit
Measuring voltage in a Series Circuit

For a series circuit, the sum of the voltages for each component is equal to the voltage across the cell or battery.

V1 = V2 + V3

Set up the apparatus as shown……

…then record the voltages at the locations shown.

What do you notice about the readings?

V1

1.5

Note: Voltmeters are connected in parallel

0.75

0.75

V2

V3


Current in a series circuit
Current in a Series Circuit

In a series circuit the current is the same wherever you measure it.

When measuring current ammeters are always placed in series.

Set up the circuit shown below……

…and then record the current using an ammeter in the places shown below.

The current is the same for each ammeter.

What do you notice about the readings?

A

A

A


Current in a series circuit1
Current in a Series Circuit

  • Current is shared along each part of a circuit evenly.

  • Ex. like water flowing through a hose. No matter what part of the hose you look at, the current that will be flowing will be the same.


Resistors in series

When you slide down a water slide if all of a sudden there was no water and you slide down dry plastic you would slow down (probably hurt a bit too…)

This is just like resistance, as people must slow down riding the slide when they hit the dry bit, there will be less people riding the slide per minute. Think of resistors like the dry part, slowing down electrons in a circuit, decreasing the current (amount of electrons flowing past a certain part of the wire per second).

Resistors in Series


Resistors in series1
Resistors in Series was no water and you slide down dry plastic you would slow down (probably hurt a bit too…)

  • When resistors are placed in series in a circuit, the total resistance increases and the total current throughout the circuit decreases.


Parallel circuits
Parallel Circuits was no water and you slide down dry plastic you would slow down (probably hurt a bit too…)

  • A closed circuit where there is more than one path for electrons to flow through is called a parallel circuit

  • There are three possible paths, electrons can flow to bulb 1, 2 or 3.

  • If one bulb goes out, the other ones will not be affected.

  • Think about a waterslide park with one slide closed. The kids can still get to the bottom by taking another slide.

  • The part of a circuit where it braches off is called a junction point


Measuring voltage ii
Measuring voltage II was no water and you slide down dry plastic you would slow down (probably hurt a bit too…)

For a parallel circuit, the voltage across the cell/battery is the same as the voltage across each branch.

V1 = V2 = V3

..measure the voltage at the locations shown.

Set up the apparatus as shown….

What do you notice about your readings?

V1

V2

1.5

V3

1.5

1.5


Measuring current ii
Measuring current II was no water and you slide down dry plastic you would slow down (probably hurt a bit too…)

For a parallel circuit, the current that leaves the cell or battery is the same as the current that returns to the cell or battery. The current does not get used up by a circuit, just the energy the electrons are carrying. Pathways with less resistance will have more current flowing through.

A1 = A4

…then record the current at the locations shown.

What do you notice about the readings?

Set up the circuit shown below……

A1

A4

0.8

A2

0.5

A3

0.3

0.8

The sum of the currentsat a junction pointof a parallel circuit is the equal to the current that leaves the junction point or battery. A1 = A2 + A3 =A4


  • The total current entering a junction point must was no water and you slide down dry plastic you would slow down (probably hurt a bit too…)

    Equal the sum of the current leaving the junction point. Loads of different resistance will have different currents.


Resistors in parallel

When resistors are placed in parallel you create another pathway so the overall resistance is decreased.

When the total resistance decrease what happens to the current in the circuit?

Think about I = V/R

It increases!!!!

Resistors in Parallel


Resistors in parallel1
Resistors in Parallel pathway so the overall resistance is decreased.

  • If you only have one pathway, the resistance will be higher than if you have two pathways. 

  • Therefore, the more resistors you add in parallel, the less total resistance there is and the more current will flow.


The power of electricity
The Power of Electricity pathway so the overall resistance is decreased.

Power= rate of changein energy or the rate at which work is done or being transformed.

  • The unit of energy is the Joule (J). One joule (J) of energy transformed in one second (s) is called a watt (W) of power. 

  • 1 Watt = 1 J/s


Calculating electrical power
Calculating Electrical Power pathway so the overall resistance is decreased.

  • Electrical power is the rate of change in electrical energy.

  • What changes electrical energy to other forms?

    • Load (light bulb, stereo)

  • Calculating Electrical power of a device by using:

    P(power) = V x I


Energy consumption
Energy Consumption pathway so the overall resistance is decreased.

E (J) = P(W) × t(s)

Energy (Joules) = Power (Watt) × time (seconds)

  • Power is the amount of energy used over time.

  • P = E/t

  • Power = Energy/time

    Switch around equation

  • Energy = P xt

  • Create another Triangle

  • This power rating is usually seen on electrical devices such as blenders, hair dryers, computer power supplies, and heaters.


Large units of energy
Large Units of Energy pathway so the overall resistance is decreased.

1000 W = 1 kW 

3600 s = 1 h

1.0 kW•h = 1.0 kW × 1.0 h

1.0 kW•h = 1000 W × 3600 s

1.0 kW•h = 3,600,000 J = 3600 kJ

  • A joule is a very small measure of energy. 

  • 1.0 joule = 1.0 watt X 1.0 second 

  • Large quantities of energy are measured in kilowatt–hours (kW•h)


Cost of electricity
Cost of Electricity pathway so the overall resistance is decreased.

  • BC Hydro monitors the electricity used in your home by a meter that measures the energy used in kilowatt-hours

    For example, if you used 1500 kW h and BC Hydro costs $0.07 a kwh, how much is your electric bill?


Power surges
Power Surges pathway so the overall resistance is decreased.

  • Why do we have power bars that we connect our computers to?

  • Surges can be caused by lightning, turning off large electrical appliances and power company “errors”

  • Surge protectors absorb some of the extra electricity and send the rest to ground


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