Development of urogenital system
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 92

Development of urogenital system PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 194 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Development of urogenital system. 陳建榮. Development of Urogenital System. Adrenal Glands Kidneys The development of the kidneys from the pronephros to their ascent to the level of L1. Reproductive System

Download Presentation

Development of urogenital system

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Development of urogenital system

Development of urogenital system

陳建榮


Development of urogenital system

Development of Urogenital System

Adrenal Glands

Kidneys

The development of the kidneys from the pronephros to their ascent to the level of L1.

Reproductive System

The development of male and female genitalia from the partitioning of the cloaca to the final differentiated state.


Development of urogenital system

  • Embryology of the urogenital system

  • -Urinary system

  • Genital system

    • Urogenital ridge泌尿生殖嵴 (intermediate mesoderm) along the posterior abdominal wall

    • -- urinary system  nephrogenic cord生腎索

    • -- genital system  gonadal ridge生殖嵴

    • Kidney develops first (functional; reproductive later)

生腎索


Development of urogenital system

原腎

Urinary system

中腎

後腎

Genital system

生殖嵴


Development of urogenital system

Normal Development of the Adrenal Glands

Formation of the adrenal cortexThe adrenal glands is derived from the intermediate mesoderm and ectoderm. The adrenal glands have two developmentally distinct parts: the medulla and the cortex.

Formation of the adrenal medulla

Development of zones of adrenal gland


Development of urogenital system

球小帶

束狀帶

網狀帶


Development of urogenital system

6th weeks

體腔上皮

體腔上皮


Development of urogenital system

Normal Development of the Adrenal Glands

Formation of the adrenal cortex

Formation of the adrenal medullaNeural crest cells migrate into the center of this aggregate to develop the adrenal medulla. The cells differentiate into sympathetic nerve cells and show evidence of catecholamine production in 10th week of fetal life.

Development of zones of adrenal gland

10th week

神經嵴


Development of urogenital system

Normal Development of the Adrenal Glands

  • Formation of the adrenal cortex

  • Formation of the adrenal medulla

  • Development of zones of adrenal gland

  • During fetal period

    • zona glomerulus球小帶

    • zona fasciculata束狀帶

  • 3 years old

    • zona reticularis網狀帶forms

  • The fetal adrenal glands are larger than the fetal kidney at four months. Even at birth they are relatively quite large (about 20 times their relative size in the adult).

  • After birth, the fetal cortex rapidly undergoes regression.


Development of urogenital system

2

1

3


Development of urogenital system

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH)

先天性腎上腺增生不全


Development of urogenital system

Normal Development of the Urinary System

Development of kidney

Early kidney development (pronephros原腎)Development of mesonephros中腎 Development of metanephros後腎Ascent of the kidneys

Development of the Urinary Bladder


Development of urogenital system

  • Normal Development of theKidneys

  • Pronephros:原腎(4th week, nonfunctional)

  • mesenchymal cell aggregates in neck region of embryo, and soon transformed into ligament

  • pronephros attached to pronephric ducts原腎管

  • promesonephric ducts used in next stage of kidney development, these ducts end in the cloacal region caudal to the mesenchymal cell aggregates of the pronephros.

  • Mesonephros:

  • Metanephros:


Development of urogenital system

原腎

原腎管

中腎管

中腎

後腎


Development of urogenital system

  • Normal Development of the Kidneys

  • Pronephros: (4th week, nonfunctional)

  • Mesonephros: 中腎(functional)

  • mesonephros begins development late in 4th week lie caudal to pronephros

  • mesonephros consists of glomeruli and mesonephric tubules中腎小管 which open into mesonephric duct, a continuation of the pronephric duct mesonephric duct opens into cloaca

  • mesonephros proper degenerates but tubules and ducts have derivatives in adult males (tubules form ductuli efferentes輸出小管 and ducts form a number of reproductive structures to be discussed later).

  • Metanephros:


Development of urogenital system

中腎管

中腎小管


Development of urogenital system

中腎小管

中腎管

中腎小泡

腎絲球囊


Development of urogenital system

Development of the Metanephros後腎:

  • The ureteric bud尿道芽體 forms from an outgrowth of the mesonephric duct near the cloaca. The ureter, renal pelvis, major and minor calyces, collecting ducts and collecting tubules are all formed from the ureteric bud.

  • The metanephric mesenchyme forms from the caudal portion of the intermediate mass, and it surrounds the end of the ureteric bud.

  • As the kidney grows the ureteric bud forms finger-like projections.

  • The first 4 generations of the projections form the major calyx, the next 2 generations form the minor calyces, and the remaining projections form the straight and arched collecting tubules.


Development of urogenital system

腎大盞

腎小盞

腎盂

尿道芽體

後腎原基


Development of urogenital system

尿道芽體


Development of urogenital system

腎盂


Development of urogenital system

Normal development of Nephrons

  • The arched collecting tubules induce growth of the surrounding mesenchyme, which forms a tubule in the metanephric mass後腎原基 of mesoderm.

  • These tubules form the parts of the nephron: glomerulus, Bowman's capsule, convoluted tubule, loop of Henle.

  • Formation of the nephrons of the permanent kidney begins at 8th week.

  • The metanephric vesicles elongate to form tubules which directly contact the arched collecting tubules.

  • The metanephric tubules are lobulated and remain this way until after birth.


Development of urogenital system

後腎小泡

後腎原基

  • Metanephric mass:

  • Bowman's capsule

  • Proximal and distal convoluted tubule

  • Loop of Henle

後腎小管


Development of urogenital system

Normal Development of the Urinary System

Development of kidney

Early kidney development (pronephros)Development of mesonephros Development of metanephrosAscent of the kidneys

Development of the Urinary Bladder


Development of urogenital system

  • Ascent of the kidneys

  • During the 5th and 6th weeks of development, the mature kidneys lie in the pelvis with their hila pointed anteriorly.

  • As the pelvis and abdomen grow, the kidneys slowly move upward.

  • By the 7th week, the hilum points medially and the kidneys are located in the abdomen.

  • As the embryo continues to grow in a caudal direction, the kidneys come to lie in a retroperitoneal position at the level of L1 by the 9th week of development.

9th week

7th week


Development of urogenital system

Renal agenesis腎臟發育不全

Bilateral renal agenesis

Malrotated kidney腎臟旋轉不良

Ectopic kidney異位性腎臟

Duplication of urinary tract

Ectopic ureter異位性輸尿管


Development of urogenital system

Horseshoe kidney馬蹄腎


Development of urogenital system

Accessory renal arteries


Development of urogenital system

Duplication of urinary tract


Development of urogenital system

Development of Urinary Bladder

  • Cloaca (uro-rectal septum泌尿直腸隔)

    • urogenital sinus泌尿生殖竇

    • Anorectal canal肛門直腸管

  • The uro-genital sinus may be divided into three component parts.

    • The cranial portion : allantois and forms the bladder proper.

    • The pelvic part : prostatic urethra and bulbo urethral glands in the male and the membranous urethra and part of the vagina in females.

    • The caudal portion: penile urethra in males and the vestibule in females.


Development of urogenital system

  • The trigone portion is formed by the caudal ends of the mesonephric ducts.

  • The mesonephric ducts begin to become incorporated into the wall of the bladder dragging the ureters along with them.

  • The mesonephric ducts enter the prostatic part of the urethra.

  • In females, the ducts then degenerate. In males, the ducts form the origin of the ejaculatory ducts.                                                                                                                     


Development of urogenital system

  • The bladder is initially continuous with the allantois.

  • Over time, the allantois degenerates to form a cord-like structure, the urachus.

  • The urachus goes from the umbilicus to the apex of the bladder and forms the median umbilical ligament which can be seen in adults.


Development of urogenital system

Urachal anomalies

臍尿管異常


Development of urogenital system

Extrophy of bladder膀胱外翻


Development of urogenital system

Extrophy of bladder

Normal


Development of urogenital system

Normal development of Reproductive System

  • Bipotential Phase

    • Early Development (pre-differentiation)Partitioning of the Cloaca

    • Male Development

    • Development of the TestesDevelopment of External Genitalia

  • Female Development

    • Development of the OvariesDevelopment of the VaginaDevelopment of External GenitaliaSummary of Derivatives of Embryonic Structures


  • Development of urogenital system

    • The chromosomal & genetic sex of an embryo is determined at fertilization by the kind of sperm that fertilizes the ovum.

    • Male & female characteristics begin to develop at the 7th week.

    • The early genital system in the two sexes are similar  the initial period of genital development is called indifferent stage of sexual development.


    Development of urogenital system

    Early Genital System Development

    • Early in the 4th week, the primordial germ cells may be seen in the endoderm around the allantois.

    • These germ cells migrate under the coelomic epithelium, around the gut to the dorsal mesentery.

    生殖嵴


    Regulation of germ cell migration

    Regulation of germ cell migration


    Indifferent gonads

    Indifferent Gonads

    • It is the Initial stage in 5th week  thickened area of mesothelium develops on the medial side of the mesonephros  proliferation  form a bulge on the medial side (Gonadal (genital) ridge生殖嵴).

    • Primary sex cord性腺索( fingerlike epithelial cords)  grow into the underlying mesenchyme.

    • The indifferent gonad consists of an external cortex and internal medulla

    • In femalethe cortex of indifferent gonads form the ovary & the medulla regress.

    • In male the medulla  form the testis & cortex regress except for vestigial remnants.(SRY)


    Development of urogenital system

    生殖嵴


    Development of the gonads testes ovary

    Development of the Gonads(Testes & Ovary)

    • The gonads (testes & ovary) are derived from 3 sources:

    • The mesodermal epithelium lining the posterior abdominal wall.

    • The underlying mesenchyme.

    • The primordial germ cells原始胚細胞.


    Development of urogenital system

    Partitioning of Cloaca

    • The caudal end of the hindgut is lined with endoderm and is known as the cloaca.

    • At the end of the cloaca, the there is a cloacal membrane which separates the endoderm from the surface ectoderm.


    Development of urogenital system

    • The uro-rectal septum泌尿直腸隔 migrates caudally to divide the cloaca into dorsal and ventral aspects.

    • On the ventral side, attaching to the allantois is the primitive uro-genital sinus泌尿生殖竇. The primitive ano-rectal canal肛門直腸竇 lies dorsally.

    • As the division is completed, at 7th weeks, the cloacal membrane is also divided into uro-genital membrane泌尿生殖膜 and anal membrane肛門膜.

    Urogenital sinus

    Ano-rectal canal


    Development of urogenital system

    • As the urogenital septum is migrating caudally, the intermediate masses are also proliferating.

    • These mesodermal masses form a genital tubercle生殖結節 at the ventral tip of the cloacal membrane.

    • Labioscrotal陰唇陰囊隆起 swellings and urogenital folds develop shortly thereafter on each side of the cloacal membrane.

    • When the urogenital septum reaches the cloacal membrane, dividing it into anal membrane and urogenital membrane.

    • The embryo is still in its bipotential phase at this point and has the potential to develop either male or female external genitalia.

    生殖結節

    泌尿生殖膜

    陰唇陰囊隆起

    肛門膜


    Development of urogenital system

    Normal development of Reproductive System

    • Bipotential Phase

      • Early Development (pre-differentiation)Partitioning of the Cloaca

      • Male Development

      • Development of the TestesDevelopment of External Genitalia

  • Female Development

    • Development of the OvariesDevelopment of the VaginaDevelopment of External GenitaliaSummary of Derivatives of Embryonic Structures


  • Development of urogenital system

    Development of Testes

    • Embryos which contain the Y chromosome have a specific gene known as SRY.

    • SRY is expressed in the mesenchyme and cause a cascade of events leading to the formation of internal male organs.

    • The first step in the development of the testes is the formation of the tunica albuginea, a layer of fibrous connective tissue which separates the sex cords (seminiferous cords細精索) from the surface epithelium.

    • Within the tunica albuginea, the seminiferous cords are separated from one another by mesenchyme.

    • The mesenchyme  Leydig cells.

    7th week

    細精索


    Development of urogenital system

    • Leydig cells produce testosterone to promot the mesonephric duct.

    • The renal corpuscle is degenerating, which allows the tubules of the mesonephros to hook up to the rete testis睪丸網  ductuli efferentes輸出管.

    • These tubules are continuous with the mesonephric duct, which is now known as the epididymis.

    Mesonephric tubule  ductuli efferentes輸出管

    Mesonephric duct  epididymis附睪, ductus deferen輸精管


    Development of urogenital system

    睪丸網

    輸出管


    Development of urogenital system

    • The seminiferous cords細精索are solid (i.e. no lumen) until puberty but they are made up of a large number of Sertoli cells, a highly proliferative cell which secretes antimullerian hormone (AMH).

    • AMH inhibits the paramesonephric ducts副中腎管 which then degenerate around the 9th week of development.

    • The seminiferous cords remain solid until puberty at which time a lumen develops and they become the seminiferous tubules.

    Sertoli cell  antimullerian hormone (AMH)


    Development of genital ducts

    Development of Genital Ducts

    • Both male & female embryos have 2 pairs of genital ducts:

    • The mesonephric (wolffian) ducts中腎管 important in the development of the male reproductive system.

    • The paramesonephric ( mullerian) ducts副中腎管 important in female reproductive system.

    • In indifferent stage of the genital system  the male & female genital ducts are present.


    Development of urogenital system

    副中腎管

    中腎管


    Development of urogenital system

    中腎管

    副中腎管


    The mesonephric ducts

    The Mesonephric ducts

    • These ducts drain urine from the mesonephric kidney.

    • Also, under the influence of testosterone, the proximal part of each mesonephric duct become convoluted to form the epididymis. Müllerian inhibiting substance(MIS, AMH) causes the paramesonephric ducts to dissappear by epithelial mesenchymal transformed.

    • The remainder of this duct forms the ductus deferens & ejaculatory duct.

    • In Female  the mesonephric ducts are completely disappear, only a few non-functional remnant persist.


    Development of urogenital system

    前列腺

    尿道球腺


    Development of urogenital system

    • Prostate前列腺: multiple endodermal outgrowths arise from the prostatic part of the urethra & grow into the surrounding mesenchyme.

    • Bulbourethral glands尿道球腺:pea-sized structures develop from paired outgrowths form the spongy part of the urethra. The secretions of these glands contribute to the semen.


    Development of urogenital system

    Development of Male External Genitalia

    • Testosterone  male external genitalia

    • Genital tubercle  penis

      • Urogenital folds  urethral groove.

    • The urogenital folds fuse together on the ventral side of the developing penis, enclosing what will now become the spongy urethra.

    生殖結節

    泌尿生殖褶


    Development of urogenital system

    • The foreskin is formed in the 12th week of development.

    • A septum of ectoderm moves inward around the edges of the penis and then breaks down, leaving a thin layer of skin surrounding the penis.

    • During this time, the penis is also developing its corpus cavernosa and spongiosa from proliferating mesenchyme within the genital tubercle.


    Development of urogenital system

    舟狀窩


    Development of urogenital system

    Hypospadia尿道下裂


    Development of urogenital system

    Normal development of Reproductive System

    • Bipotential Phase

      • Early Development (pre-differentiation)Partitioning of the Cloaca

      • Male Development

      • Development of the TestesDevelopment of External Genitalia

  • Female Development

    • Development of the OvariesDevelopment of the VaginaDevelopment of External GenitaliaSummary of Derivatives of Embryonic Structures


  • Development of urogenital system

    Development of the Ovaries

    • In the absence of SRY, the primary sex cords are not nearly so well-developed as in the male embryo.

    • The cortex is much better developed and it forms secondary sex cords that extend from the surface epithelium to the mesenchyme.


    Development of urogenital system

    Androgen insensitivity syndrome


    Development of urogenital system

    Development of the Vagina

    • The paramesonephric ducts develop in the female because of a lack of anti-mullerian hormone.

    • These paramesonephric ducts form the majority of the female reproductive tract.

    • The fallopian tubes develop from the upper unfused portions of the ducts while the lower fused portion of the ducts forms a uterovaginal primordium which gives rise to the uterus and vagina.

    • The sinovaginal bulbs form when the uterovaginal primordium子宮陰道原基 contacts the urogenital sinus.

    泌尿生殖竇

    子宮陰道原基


    Development of urogenital system

    子宮陰道原基


    Development of urogenital system

    子宮陰道原基

    竇陰道球


    Development of urogenital system

    Anomalies of uterine tube and uterus


    Development of urogenital system

    Pseudohermaphrodite偽雙性畸形

    Normal


    Development of urogenital system

    Vagina ends blindly(vaginal atresia)陰道閉鎖


    Development of urogenital system

    Development of Female External Genitalia

    生殖結節

    泌尿生殖褶

    陰唇陰囊褶


    Development of urogenital system

    Development of External Genitalia


    Development of urogenital system

    Congenital anomalies of hymen


    Development of urogenital system

    Descent of gonads

    • Descent of the testis

    • Gubernaculum引帶

      • Proper lig. of testis睪丸固有韌帶

      • Lig. of tail of epididymis副睪尾韌帶

    • The testis descends through the inguinal canal into the scrotum at the time of birth.

    • The testis is then covered by a layer of peritoneum, the visceral layer of the tunica vaginalis

    • The remainder of the peritoneal sac forms the parietal layer of the tunica vaginalis鞘膜.

    • The canal connecting the lumen of the vaginal process鞘突 with the peritoneal cavity is obliterated at birth or shortly thereafter.

    • Descent of the ovary

    • The ovaries also descend to their position in the true pelvis.

    • Gubernaculum

      • ovarian ligament 卵巢固有韌帶

      • round ligament of the uterus子宮圓韌帶 (extending to the labia majora).


    Development of urogenital system

    Possible site of crytorchid隱睪 and ectopic testes


    Development of urogenital system

    Failure of closure of the processus vaginalis

    Inguinal hernia腹股溝疝氣

    陰囊積水

    陰囊積水


    Development of urogenital system

    Reproductive System

    • Bipotential Phase

      • Early Development (pre-differentiation)Partitioning of the Cloaca

      • Male Development

      • Development of the TestesDevelopment of External Genitalia

  • Female Development

    • Development of the OvariesDevelopment of the VaginaDevelopment of External GenitaliaSummary of Derivatives of Embryonic Structures


  • Development of urogenital system

    Adult Equivalents of Embryonic Structures


  • Login