Human Urogenital System
Download
1 / 36

Human Urogenital System - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


Human Urogenital System. Urogenital System Functions. Filtering of blood, Removal of wastes and metabolites Regulation of blood volume and composition concentration of blood solutes pH of extracellular fluid blood cell synthesis Synthesis of Vitamin D Reproduction and sexual function.

Related searches for Human Urogenital System

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha

Download Presentation

Human Urogenital System

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript



Urogenital system functions l.jpg
Urogenital System Functions

  • Filtering of blood, Removal of wastes and metabolites

  • Regulation of

    • blood volume and composition

    • concentration of blood solutes

    • pH of extracellular fluid

    • blood cell synthesis

  • Synthesis of Vitamin D

  • Reproduction and sexual function



Location and external anatomy of kidneys l.jpg

Location

Lie behind peritoneum on posterior abdominal wall on either side of vertebral column

Lumbar vertebrae and rib cage partially protect

Right kidney slightly lower than left

External Anatomy

Renal capsule

Surrounds each kidney

Perirenal fat

Engulfs renal capsule and acts as cushioning and source of energy

Renal fascia

Anchors kidneys to abdominal wall, separates from abdomen

Hilum

Renal artery and nerves enter and renal vein and ureter exit kidneys

Location and External Anatomyof Kidneys


Internal anatomy of kidneys l.jpg
Internal Anatomy of Kidneys

  • Cortex: Outer area

    • Renal columns

  • Medulla: Inner area

    • Renal pyramids

  • Calyces

    • Major: Converge to form pelvis

    • Minor: Papillae extend

  • Nephron:Functional unit of kidney

    • Juxtamedullary

    • Cortical




Internal anatomy of kidneys8 l.jpg

Renal corpuscle

Bowman’s or Renal capsule

Parietal layer

Visceral layer

Glomerulus

Network of capillaries goes into another capillary bed called the peritubular Capillaries

- Arterioles

Afferent

Blood to glomerulus

Efferent

Drains not into veinule but another arteriole

Tubules

Proximal (convoluted) tubule

Loops of Henle

Descending limb

Ascending limb

Distal (convoluted) tubules

Collecting ducts

Internal Anatomy of Kidneys




Ureters and urinary bladder l.jpg

Ureters

Tubes through which urine flows from kidneys to urinary bladder

Urinary bladder

Stores urine

Urethra

Transports urine from bladder to outside of body

Difference in length between males and females

Sphincters

Internal urinary

External urinary

Ureters and Urinary Bladder




Filtration l.jpg

Filtration

Renal filtrate

Plasma minus blood cells and blood proteins

Most (99%) reabsorbed

Filtration membrane

Fenestrated endothelium, basement membrane and pores formed by podocytes

Filtration pressure

Responsible for filtrate formation

Glomerular capillary pressure (GCP) minus capsule pressure (CP) minus colloid osmotic pressure (COP)

Changes caused by glomerular capillary pressure

Filtration

EFP = GCP – CP – COP

Where Effective filtration pressure = EFP



Tubular reabsorption l.jpg

Reabsorption almost 90% takes place in Proximal tubule via

Passive transport

Active transport

Cotransport

Specialization of tubule segments

Distal tubule and collecting duct affected by hormones like ADH & Aldosterone

Substances transported

Active transport moves Na+ across nephron wall

Other ions and molecules moved by cotransport

Passive transport moves water, urea, lipid-soluble, nonpolar compounds

Tubular Reabsorption





Tubular secretion l.jpg
Tubular Secretion

  • Substances enter proximal or distal tubules and collecting ducts

  • H+, K+ and some substances not produced in body are secreted by countertransport mechanisms



Urine production l.jpg

In Proximal tubules

Na+ and other substances removed

Water follows passively

Filtrate volume reduced

In descending limb of loop of Henle

Water exits passively, solute enters

Filtrate volume reduced 15%

In ascending limb of loop of Henle

Na+, Cl-, K+ transported out of filtrate

Water remains

In distal tubules and collecting ducts

Water movement out regulated by ADH

If absent, water not reabsorbed and dilute urine produced

If ADH present, water moves out, concentrated urine produced

Urine Production




Urine concentration mechanism l.jpg

When large volume of water consumed

Eliminate excess without losing large amounts of electrolytes

Response is kidneys produce large volume of dilute urine

When drinking water not available

Kidneys produce small volume of concentrated urine

Removes waste and prevents rapid dehydration

Urine Concentration Mechanism



Hormonal mechanisms l.jpg

ADH

Secreted by posterior pituitary

Increases water permeability in distal tubules and collecting ducts

Aldosterone

Produced in adrenal cortex

Affects Na+ and Cl- transport in nephron and collecting ducts

Renin

Produced by kidneys, causes production of angiotensin II

Atrial natriuretic hormone

Produced by heart when blood pressure increases

Inhibits ADH production

Reduces ability of kidney to concentrate urine

Hormonal Mechanisms




Autoregulation and sympathetic stimulation l.jpg

Autoregulation

Involves changes in degree of constriction in afferent arterioles

As systemic BP increased, afferent arterioles constrict and prevent increase in renal blood flow

Sympathetic stimulation

Constricts small arteries and afferent arterioles

Decreases renal blood flow

Autoregulation and Sympathetic Stimulation


Clearance and tubular load l.jpg

Plasma clearance

Volume of plasma cleared of a specific substance each minute

Used to estimate GFR

Used to calculate renal plasma flow

Used to determine which drugs or other substances excreted by kidney

Tubular load

Total amount of substance that passes through filtration membrane into nephrons each minute

Normally glucose is almost completed reabsorbed

Clearance and Tubular Load


Tubular maximum l.jpg
Tubular Maximum

  • Tubular maximum

    • Maximum rate at which a substance can be actively absorbed

    • Each substance has its own tubular maximum


Urine flow and micturition reflex l.jpg

Urine flow

Hydrostatic pressure forces urine through nephron

Peristalsis moves urine through ureters

Micturition reflex

Stretch of urinary bladder stimulates reflex causing bladder to contract, inhibiting urinary sphincters

Higher brain centers can stimulate or inhibit reflex

Urine Flow and Micturition Reflex



Effects of aging on kidneys l.jpg
Effects of Aging on Kidneys

  • Gradual decrease in size of kidney

    • Decrease in kidney size leads to decrease in renal blood flow

  • Decrease in number of functional nephrons

  • Decrease in renin secretion and vitamin D synthesis

  • Decline in ability of nephron to secrete and absorb



ad
  • Login