Resources from earth s waters
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 107

RESOURCES FROM EARTH’S WATERS PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 41 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

RESOURCES FROM EARTH’S WATERS. OCEANS, BAYS, LAKES,RIVERS PONDS, STREAMS ETC. WORLD POPULATION. How Much of Our Food Supply Comes from Earth’s Water. 1% of food comes from the sea Earth’s Waters Supply 10% of the protein consumed by humans. Kinds of Food From Earth’s Waters.

Download Presentation

RESOURCES FROM EARTH’S WATERS

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Resources from earth s waters

RESOURCES FROMEARTH’S WATERS

OCEANS, BAYS, LAKES,RIVERS PONDS, STREAMS ETC.


World population

WORLD POPULATION


How much of our food supply comes from earth s water

How Much of Our Food Supply Comes from Earth’s Water

  • 1% of food comes from the sea

  • Earth’s Waters Supply 10% of the protein consumed by humans


Kinds of food from earth s waters

Kinds of Food From Earth’s Waters

  • Finfish – make up 85% of world catch followed by shellfish (mollusk and crustaceans)

  • Finfish come from - 86% ocean, 14% freshwater

  • Shellfish- 15% mostly from the ocean


Kinds of food from earth s water cont d

Kinds of Food From Earth’s Water cont’d

  • Freshwater fisheris comprise 18% of the global catch, and it is growing!

  • Seafood accounts for 15% of the total animal protein consumed worldwide!!

  • (a very large number considering only1% of food comes from the sea/rivers/lakes.


Types of fish and shellfish

Types of Fish and Shellfish

  • Benthic and Demersal – live at or near the bottom of the sea in COLD Waters (ex. Flounder, lobsters, crabs, whiting)

  • Clupeoid – live in schools near surface on continental shelf ex. Herrings (sardines), Menhaden, Shads

  • Pelagic – Open water fish (ex. Squid, Tuna, Swordfish)


Benthic fish king crab

Benthic Fish KING CRAB

  • Live at or near the

    bottom of the sea


Cold water demersal fish

COLD WATER DEMERSAL FISH

  • Live near or around the bottom of the continental shelf

  • Examples

  • Cod, Pollack, haddock, hakes, whiting

  • Caught in trawls


Resources from earth s waters

COD


Whiting

WHITING


Pollack

POLLACK


Benthic fish

Benthic Fish

  • Flounder

  • Flat fish

  • Eyes on one side

  • Camouflage to

    match color of

    the sand


Benthic fishing techniques

Benthic Fishing Techniques

  • Caught with trawls-dragged along the bottom of the sea. TRAWLING


Fishing techniques

FISHING TECHNIQUES

  • TRAWLING


Cod fishery threatened

Cod Fishery-Threatened!!

  • 1992-Grand Banks placed moratorium (ended) the cod fishery to save them from extinction.

  • 1994-Georges Bank fishery off New England closed their operations also.

  • Experts predict the cod will NEVER recover!!!


Clupeoid fish

CLUPEOID FISH

SARDINES – travel in schools near the surface & along continental shelf


Continental shelf

CONTINENTAL SHELF


Clupeoid fish1

CLUPEOID FISH

  • Sardines, shad, herring, menhaden etc.

  • Live in schools

  • Found over continental shelf

  • Caught using purse seines

  • Eaten fresh, canned or pickled

  • Ground into fish flour or Fish Protein Concentrate


Fishing techniques purse seine nets

Fishing TechniquesPurse Seine Nets


Fishing techniques1

FISHING TECHNIQUES

  • PURSE SEINE


Clupeoid fish2

CLUPEOID FISH

  • Used to produce fish oil

  • Used to make fish meal for poultry feed

  • Used to make fertilizer

  • Industrial catches may result in overfishing because they naturally fluctuate in population and fisherman are unaware of their low cycles

  • 1940’s sardine fishery collapsed


Purse seine catches

Purse Seine Catches


Clupeoid fish3

CLUPEOID FISH

  • HERRINGS


Clupeoid fish4

CLUPEOID FISH

  • MENHADEN


Sardines and anchovies

Sardines and Anchovies


Pelagic fish

PELAGIC FISH

Open Water Fish

  • Billfish (Striped marlin, Blue marlin, Black marlin Sailfish, Swordfish)

  • Tuna (Yellowfin, Skipjack, Bonito)

  • Jacks (Yellowtail, Amberjack)

  • Dolphinfish (Dorado)

  • Mako shark


Resources from earth s waters

Tuna


Resources from earth s waters

TUNA

Skipjack, yellow fin, big eye, albacore, blue fin

Eaten raw in sashami

Caught in gill nets, large sienes and long lines

Blue fin can sell for up to $350.00 a pound

Tuna population is down 10%

Fish nations would not declare it an endangered species, but in 1995 agreed to restrict catches to 50% of current catches


Fishing techniques pelagic fish

Fishing Techniques-Pelagic Fish

Pelagic Fish are caught using large seines, surface longlines and gill nets.


Commercial fishing in the past

COMMERCIAL FISHINGIN THE PAST

  • Early fishing methods


Fishing techniques2

FISHING TECHNIQUES


Fishing techniques3

FISHING TECHNIQUES

  • LONG LINES-Pelagic Fish


Long lines pelagic fish

LONG LINES-Pelagic Fish


Fish net

FISH NET


Gill net benthic demersal fish

GILL NET-Benthic/Demersal Fish


Marlin

Marlin


Skipjack tuna

SKIPJACK TUNA


Blue fin tuna

Blue Fin Tuna


Yellow fin tuna

YELLOW FIN TUNA


Yellowfin tuna

YELLOWFIN TUNA


Albacore tuna

ALBACORE TUNA


Swordfish

SWORDFISH


Mako shark

MAKO SHARK


Finning

FINNING

  • Many sharks

    Are caught and

    Killed ONLY

    For their fins!!

    Then thrown

    Back into the

    Water to drown/die at sea.

    Fins sold to China for Shark Fin Soup 


Hw textbook pages 355 377 questions on resources from the sea chapter

HW-Textbook pages 355-377Questions on Resources from the Sea Chapter.


Total marine catches from 1990 to 1995

Total Marine Catches from 1990 to 1995


Mollusk

MOLLUSK

  • Second to finfish, mollusks are the most valuable food source

  • Mollusks-Soft-body protected by a calcium carbonate shell.

  • Largest catches include clams, scallops mussels, oysters, abalone, squid, and octopus


Mollusks

MOLLUSKS


Fishing for mollusks

Fishing for Mollusks

  • Shellfish-clams, oysters, scallops are caught using a scallop dredge or traps sitting on the seafloor.


Scallop dredge

SCALLOP DREDGE


Pink spiny lobster

Pink Spiny Lobster


Lobsters crabs and shrimp

LOBSTERS, CRABS AND SHRIMP


Crustaceans

CRUSTACEANS

  • Crabs

  • Lobster

  • Shrimp

  • Caught in traps and trawls that are dragged along the seafloor.


Lobster trap

LOBSTER TRAP


Lobster in trap

LOBSTER IN TRAP

  • Lobster and Crab Fishing Today


Seaweed

SEAWEED

  • Varieties of freshwater and marine algae are popular as a food source in the far east

  • Often used in sushi, sashimi, and soup


Seaweeds

SEAWEEDS

  • Seaweed is used in many cultures. It can be consumed raw, cooked, dried. Contains substantial amounts of protein


Sea urchin uni

SEA URCHIN (UNI)

  • Roe (eggs and organs that make the eggs) demands an incredibly high price in $$ Japan


Caviar

Caviar

  • Caviar is an expensive delicacy consisting of the unfertilized eggs (roe) of sturgeon brined with a salt solution .


Sturgeon

STURGEON


Sea cucumbers

SEA CUCUMBERS

  • Called TREPANG OR BECHE-DE-MER are dried, smoked, or eaten raw in orient


Jellies

JELLIES

  • Jellies are dried and eaten in China


Polycheate worms

POLYCHEATE WORMS

  • Eaten in South Pacific


Lab medicines from the sea p 176

Lab-Medicines from the Sea p.176


Sea turtles

SEA TURTLES

  • Sea Turtles and their eggs are eaten wherever found


Seals and whales

SEALS AND WHALES

  • Still eaten, particularly in Arctic, West Indies, and South Pacific


Minke whales

MINKE WHALES


Beluga whales

BELUGA WHALES


New york states endangered fish species

NEW YORK STATESENDANGERED FISH SPECIES

  • Shortnose Sturgeon

  • Silver Chub

  • Pugnose Shiner

  • Round Whitefish

  • Bluebreast Darter

  • Gilt Darter

  • Spoonhead Sculpin

  • Deepwater Sculpin


How much fishing is too much

How Much Fishing is Too Much?

  • Optimal Catch vs. Over-fishing

  • Renewable Resources are composed of living organisms that can reproduce and replace individuals lost to disease and predators including humans.

  • Nonrenewable resources would not be replaced naturally and would include oil and minerals.


Over fishing

Over-Fishing

  • Catch them faster than they reproduce.

  • A population of fishes are over-fished and the stock ( size of population) is reduced to a level which can still reproduce successfully, fisheries will cease to exist for a short time, then rebound.


Successful reproduction

Successful Reproduction

  • Depends on a Proper Stocking

    • Too many organisms lead to overcrowding, excessive competition, and depletion of food resources.

    • Too few organisms produce too few young to maintain a proper self-sustaining stock.

    • Fish do best when there are not too many and not too few. OPTIMAL *


Maximum sustainable yield

MAXIMUM SUSTAINABLE YIELD

  • The amount of fish that can be caught and just balance the growth of the population.

  • Catch just enough fish to prevent population growth, but not enough to reduce the population.


Maximum sustainable yield graph

Maximum Sustainable Yield Graph


Problems with maintaining maximum sustainable yield

PROBLEMS WITH MAINTAINING MAXIMUM SUSTAINABLE YIELD

  • Fisheries strive to exceed maximal sustainable yield or optimal catch.

  • Overfishing has already affected almost all commercial fisheries.

  • Stocks of cod, haddock, herring, halibut, shark, and wild salmon are in danger.

  • Fish stocks are damaged by pollution from oil spills, sewage, and toxic chemicals.


Problems determining maximum sustainable yield

Problems Determining Maximum Sustainable Yield

  • Not easy to determine

  • Variation caused by catching fish when they are too young or catching them before or after breeding season may make all the difference.

  • No exact science about regulating stocks of fish


Problems from the past sardines

Problems from the PastSardines

  • 1940-Pacific Sardine fishery collapsed due to heavy fishing that coincided with a low point in their reproductive cycle.


Problems of today bluefin tuna

Problems of TodayBluefin Tuna

  • Tunas-Northern bluefin tuna; one of the largest bony fish is very valuable. Their popluation is down to less than 10% of their former numbers in the Western Atlantic.

  • Nations are slow to respond, refusing to list it as endangered.

  • 1995-Agreed to reduce catch limits by 1/2


Problems of today swordfish

Problems of TodaySwordfish

  • Swordfish-Close to commercial extinction.

  • Stocks fallen 70% since 1960.

  • 88% of swordfish caught in 1995 were too young to reproduce!!!


Other threats

Other Threats

  • Pollution:

  • Oil spills

  • Sewage overflow

  • Toxic Chemicals

  • Fertilizer/pesticide runoff into oceans/lakes

  • Habitat loss

  • Destruction of breeding grounds


Possible remedies

Possible Remedies

  • Set fishing limits below what we think is the optimal catch

  • Limit the length of fishing season

  • Restricting the size or number of boats

  • Regulating the size and the sex of fish caught

  • Certain methods of fishing can be eliminated (ex. Trawls) or size of nets


More remedies

MORE REMEDIES

  • Control the areas of the sea to be fished

  • Safe fish farming


Fishing and life

Fishing and Life

  • Many people are effected by the success or failure of fisheries

  • Cannery

  • Dock workers

  • Boating and fishing gear industries

  • Bankers

  • Fisherman

  • Local businesses


Regulations

Regulations

  • 1989 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea established a 200 nautical mile ( 1 nm = 1.15 miles) exclusive economic zone. (EEZ)

  • Within this zone each country controls fishing, oil, and mineral resources.


New fisheries

New Fisheries

  • Create a market to use “junk fish” or “Bycatch” such as Alaskan Pollack, Monkfish, Croakers, and Sea Robins will be consumed. They are presently used to make fish flour, fish sticks and enrich processed food.


Industrial fisheries

Industrial Fisheries

  • Catch is used for purposes other than human consumption (fish oil, margarine, paint, pet food, fertilizer)

  • Industrial fisheries account for over 1/3 worlds total fish.

  • Most clupeoid fish are used for FPC or fish flour.


Aquaculture fish farming

AquacultureFish Farming

  • Can reduce pressure on the oceans for protein

  • It is the commercial breeding and raising of fish for human consumption.

  • Chinese have farmed freshwater fish for thousands of years

  • Romans have raised oysters

  • Videos\Aquaculture safer method.asf


Fish farm

Fish Farm


Catfish farming

Catfish Farming


Fish farming benefits

Fish Farming Benefits

  • Provide a plentiful inexpensive source of food specifically protein for a large population

  • Easier and can be less expensive than catching wild fish

  • May help prevent extinction of some species


Limitations and problems with fish farming

Limitations and Problems with Fish Farming

  • Only a small number of fish species can be farm raised

  • Clupeoid fishes need open ocean spaces and would not survive on a farm

  • Parasites and diseases are a concern

  • Cannibalism

  • Need expensive filters and pools free of pollution


Limitations and problems of fish farming

Limitations and Problems of Fish Farming

  • Use of artificial feed sources (ex. Chicken feed or Junk Fish)

  • Concentration of Carcinogens (ex. PCP ) in some populations.

  • Effect on local environment


Salmon farming

Salmon Farming

  • Hatch in freshwater habitats from 0-18months

  • At 18months they are moved offshore into pens in the ocean. Stimulates normal lifecycle.


Salmon farming problems

Salmon Farming-Problems

  • Waste concentrates and builds up in surrounding water.

  • Disease spread quickly and easily to other fish and fish that are not in the pen.

  • Chemicals given to salmon (antibiotics) may affect humans.

  • Farmed salmon have higher levels of PCB, toxic to humans!


Salmon farming problems1

Salmon Farming Problems

  • Sea lice-parasites on fish


Video clips

Video Clips

  • Videos\Fish_Farms.asf

  • Videos\Fish_Farming_.asf


  • Login