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Economic Uses of Minerals & Rocks






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Economic Uses of Minerals & Rocks. Energy Resources, Ores, Gems, and Building Materials. Our Earth Resources. Why you must have someone somewhere who develops the resources you use every day: . Our Earth Resources. Resource =
Economic Uses of Minerals & Rocks

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Slide 1

Economic Uses of Minerals & Rocks

Energy Resources, Ores, Gems, and Building Materials

Slide 2

Our Earth Resources

  • Why you must have someone somewhere who develops the resources you use every day:

Slide 3

Our Earth Resources

  • Resource =

    • Physical or virtual entity with utility, value, and limited availability

  • Ore =

    • Materials that exist in quantities that can be extracted and marketed for a profit

  • Major types of ores

    • Metallic (ore mineral)

    • Nonmetallic (gem, IM)

    • Energy

    • Water

Slide 4

Energy Resources: Coal, Petroleum, and Natural Gas

  • Fossil fuel energy resources are the foundation of technology-based human societies

Slide 5

Oil and Natural Gas Deposits

  • Origin:

    • Organic materials trapped in ocean-bottom sediments

    • Decompose within the rocks and form hydrocarbon liquids (oil and gas)

  • Hydrocarbons migrate along and within permeable rock layers

  • Accumulate in an area that is impermeable - "traps

Slide 6

Reservoir rocks are porous and permeable

Sandstone, limestone

“Unconventional” reservoirs – fractured shales

Oil and Natural Gas Deposits in MI

Slide 7

Basic Concepts: Ore Minerals

  • Resource

    • Absolute volume of a mineral commodity in existence, independent of economics and technology

  • Reserves or proven reserves

    • Known quantity of a resource available (produced at a profit)

    • Dependant on current economic conditions (including demand) and extant technology

  • Concentration factor

    • Ratio of ore material concentration to average crustal concentration

  • Mode of occurrence

    • A desirable commodity must occur in a mineral form that is readily processed to produce the commodity

    • Associated, unwanted mineral material (gangue) and waste after processing (tailings) must be considered in economic assessment

Slide 8

Basic Concepts: Ore Minerals

  • Ore deposits require

    • Source for metals (or other elements)

    • Means of concentrating elements into usable quantities

  • Types of Ore Deposits

    • Magmatic (cumulate, lode, pegmatite)

    • Hydrothermal (porphyry, vein, skarn, exhalative, epigenetic)

    • Sedimentary (placer, BIF, laterite, evaporite)

  • Ore Minerals

    • Native elements (Au, Ag, Cu, Pt, diamond, sulfur)

    • Sulfides and sulfosalts (pyrite, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, galena)

    • Oxides and hydroxides (magnetite, chromite, corundum, hematite, rutile)

Slide 9

Directly crystallize from magma – intrusive or extrusive

Occur as:

Accessory minerals

Disseminated deposits

Lode deposits

Ore in many small veins

California gold deposits

Pegmatite

Felsic plutons; late stage crystallization of magma

Rich in incompatible elements: Li, Cs, Be, Sn, & U

Cumulates

Dense minerals settle out in ultramafic magma chamber

Chromite, magnetite, platinum group elements

Magmatic Ore Deposits

Slide 10

Hydrothermal Ore Deposits

  • Involve fluids

    • Released from crystallizing magma (felsic plutons)

  • Occur as

    • Widely disseminated vein networks

  • Porphyry

    • Alteration of country rock by late, hydrothermal fluids

    • Cu, Mo deposited as sulfide minerals in veins

  • Skarn

    • Fluid alteration of carbonate country rock during contact metamorphism (metasomatism)

    • Fe, Pb, Cu, Mo as sulfide or oxide minerals

  • Epigenetic

    • Ore bodies not physically associated with the magmatic body that produced the hydrothermal fluids

    • Pb-Zn and Au-Sb deposits; Upper Mississippi Valley lead zinc district

Slide 11

Sedimentary Ore Deposits

  • Concentration of ore minerals due to

    • Weathering (laterite, supergene)

    • Sorting due to gravity (placer)

    • Chemical precipitation (BIF, evaporite)

  • Laterite

    • Tropical weathering to a residuum of Fe2O3 & Al2O3

    • Preserved in the geological record as bauxite

  • Placers

    • Dense, heavy minerals become concentrated in stream bottoms

    • California gold deposits

  • Banded Iron formation

    • Formed in a O2 poor, early earth atmosphere, >2 billion years old

    • Fe as hematite

Slide 12

In 2000, the estimated value of non-fuel mineral production for Michigan was $1.67 billion

The state rose to sixth in rank among the 50 states in total non-fuel mineral production value

Michigan accounted for more than 4% of the U.S. total

Mineral Resources

Slide 13

Portland cement

Cement = binding agent in concrete

Made from limestone, clay minerals and gypsum

Michigan’s leading non-fuel mineral commodity

Construction sand and gravel

Crushed stone

Magnesium compounds

Salt

Limestone

Mineral Resources of Michigan

Slide 14

Iron ore

Largely extracted from BIF

Michigan was the nation’s second leading iron ore-producing state in 2000

Copper

Native Cu of hydrothermal origin

Hosted in Precambrian basalt lava flows

Last mine, the White Pine Mine, closed in 1997

Mineral Resources of Michigan


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