BELLWORK. What led to the division of Germany in 1949? What were the causes/effects of the Berlin blockade? How did containment in Asia effect the Cold War in Europe? What were the two Cold War alliances?
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The Berlin Wall
Why was Germany such a source of tension?
In 1949 the western nations formed the North Atlantic Treaty Organization to coordinate their defense against USSR.
Pledged signers to treat an attack against one, as an attack against all
It originally consisted of:
When West Germany joined in 1955, the Soviets responded…..
Warsaw Pact: organization of communist states in Central and Eastern Europe.
Established May 14, 1955 in Warsaw, Poland in response to NATO
Albania (left in 1961) - Poland
Bulgaria - Romania
Czechoslovakia- USSR (founding member)
Hungary - East Germany (joined in 1956)
West Germany: democratic
East Germany: Stalinist, authoritarian state
Discontent in East Germany led to riots in 1953 – put down with Soviet tanks
As a result of these differences, no further efforts were made to unite Germany.
Leader of East Germany; pressured Khrushchev to escalate Berlin Crisis
The USSR called the wall a barrier to Western imperialism, but it was meant to keep its people from going to the West where there were more rights and freedoms.
The West Germans called it Schandmaur, the "Wall of Shame."
Over the years, it was rebuilt three times. Each version of the wall was higher, stronger, repressive, and impenetrable. Towers and guards with machine guns and dogs stood watch.
No one was allowed to enter the zones. Anyone trying to escape was shot on sight.
Early 1960s view of east side of Berlin Wall with barbed wire at top.
A view from the French sector looking over the wall.
41 miles long (28 on border)
12 feet high
Fortified with guards and weapons
Included anti-vehicle trenches
Over 5,000 escape attempts
Became a symbol for the division between East & West
This is a strategy used to categorize important events/people/items into specific sectors. It will help you memorize and brainstorm items from each topic.
This will be GREAT review over Cold War Cuba!
The Fall of the Berlin Wall
The Wall Falls, 1989
Riots and protests break out in East Germany.
East Germans storm the wall. Confused and outnumbered, border guards do not fight back.
The wall is breached.
Eventually East and West Germany are reunited in 1990.