Ways of knowing in nursing
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Ways of knowing in nursing . What is knowledge?? How a discipline learns defines it’s….. Epistemology = Theory (Study )of Knowledge NURSING KNOWLEDGE – Explicit (Scientific) or Research --Tacit (Experience) or Synthesis of Information. ANALYSIS OF A CONCEPT .

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Ways of knowing in nursing l.jpg

Ways of knowing in nursing

What is knowledge??

How a discipline learns defines it’s…..

Epistemology =

Theory (Study )of Knowledge

NURSING KNOWLEDGE – Explicit (Scientific) or Research

--Tacit (Experience) or Synthesis of Information


Carper s ways of knowing l.jpg

  • Considered to be epistemology of nursing..

  • Written in 1975, and has been foundational to nursing knowledge since then

  • Other ways of knowing have been proposed,

    Ways of knowing are:





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Empiric Knowing

  • - objective , abstract, quantifiable

  • - can be verified with testing

  • - arranged into theories

  • - case knowledge (biomedical model)

  • - concerned with “monitoring of disease and therapeutic responses”

  • - quantitative research uncovers this type of knowing

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Ethical Knowing

  • - moral knowledge, based on values of profession

  • - choosing, justifying and judging actions based on duty, rights and obligations

  • - CNA ethical framework guides development of this type of knowing – e.g.: research on human subjects, care of those who are different…

  • - universal values to profession, as well as personal values of the nurse

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Esthetics Knowing

  • - Art of nursing, intangible essence of what nursing is

  • - attends to uniqueness of “contextual wholeness” rather than particular moment.

  • - is anticipation of outcome rather than just evaluation of select intervention

  • - expressive, intuitive and creative aspect of nursing, and difficult to verbalize (Expert nurse actions done before actual event “How did they know that???)

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Personal Knowing

  • - awareness of self in relationship

  • - does not require mediation through language

  • - engagement , active, empathetic participation of nurse as “knower”

  • - means being authentic – incorporating that theory of interpersonal relationships until it is second nature

  • - the “a-ha” experience

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  • Hasn’t fully developed the aesthetic way of knowing

  • Does not make a distinction between concepts of knowing and knowledge

  • Theory vs pattern of knowledge in nursing

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Other ways of knowing

  • Experience (Experiential)

    • Benner Novice to Expert

    • Knowing how or ‘knowledge-as-ability” vs knowing that (Carper’s view, according to Benner). Skill based

  • Intuition

    • Non-rational thought processes of feeling or sensing

    • Not logically explained results with vast amounts of experience

  • Unknowing

    • Position of openness to understand the world view of the patient (client-centered). Leads to empathy and pt’s perspective

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    • Sociopolitical

      • Seeks to understand the ‘wherein ‘ of nursing as a practice profession.

      • Understanding of what nursing is by public, and what society and its politics are by nurses.